One must first consider the idea regarding the expansion of the universe in order to understand the principle of the equivalence of time and energy . As an alternative to the Big Bang Theory concerning the development of the universe, I propose The Space Quantum Theory. The meaning of the redshift of light radiating from distant quasars and galaxies involves the expansion of the space quanta as the cause and not the idea bodies are speeding away from us.
Ever since the discovery of the redshift observed in the spectrum of light coming from distant galaxies, space was considered to be in a state of expansion. Present day thinking conceives this redshift as the Doppler Effect. There is an apparent change in the frequency and wavelength of a train of sound or light waves when the distance between the source and the receiver is changing. Because of this redshift in the light from distant celestial objects, it was immediately assumed that these objects were moving away from one another, thus affecting the expansion of the universe. Hence, from this point of view, cosmologist inferred at one time all energy was confined in a a very small space. They suppose a Big Bang caused this energy to spread out in a state of motion that continues even until the present time. The energy then coalesced into stars forming the galaxies seen in the heavens today.
The idea was strengthened when it was discovered that a background radiation of three degrees permeates the universe. This energy produces a background radiation of a black body. This means that the infinite space beyond the universe absorbs and reflects all energies back into the universe. This notion fit the Big Bang Theory because it was calculated that the universe should have cooled down to about five degrees Kelvin during the time lapse, perhaps 20 billions of years between the initial bang and now.
Instead of assuming that galaxies are streaming away from the earth, is there another scenario to account for this redshift, realizing that the further out celestial units are, under the Big Bang concept, the faster they move? This means some units are speeding away from the Milky Way galaxy with more then the speed of light. According to the theory of relativity, from the point of view of distant bodies, our galaxy is moving away from them with the speed of light, which relativity theory prohibits, in the first place. On the other hand, if one thinks in terms of space unit expanding, the expansion factor would account for light waves spreading out since the beginning of time, causing the redshift. This other system involves the Space Quantum Theory. See Fig below - the space quantum I called a spacetron.
As the universal space quanta expand small quantities of space quanta contract creating units of charged space relative to uncharged universal expanding space. We must think of these units as charged space since they are them selves trying to expand but are force into contraction by the continual expansion of universal space on the whole. We call the contacted space quanta a positive charge. The interaction between this positive charged space and universal space as a whole generates an area surrounding the positive charged space which area we call a negative charged space. This is caused by the interaction between the positive charged units back pressure against and expanded universal spacetrons. Together we call this an electromagnetic action which orms the hydrogen atom. This contentional action may be suspended when a number of charged space quanta assemble. This unit we call a neutral charged space, that is, the neutron and the unit becomes of a higher atomic order. For instance, oxygen which associated with hydrogen to creates water.
Maxwell formulated Faraday's magnetic and electric experimental findings into four electromagnetic equations that describes the transmission of light, and, in fact, all electromagnetic waves that propagate through what he imagined was the ether, which he thought filled the space forming the Universe. These undulations emanating from mass, while passing from one mass to another, set up trains of waves that vibrated the ether particles existing in space. The ether particles were thought to form an elastic solid. This substance had to be strong as steel, but as pliable as putty, in order for the electromagnetic waves to undulate it. Cosmologist thought the earth slipped through the ether as an object is able to pass through a mixture of soft coal-tar. However, Einstein claimed no ether existed since experiments to find an ether wind proved to be negative. (Michelson - Morley experiment.)
In order to understand the principle of the equivalence of time and energy as the expansion of space, and what it truly means, requires the understanding of the concept of "Time."
Time and, consequently, energy have a reality all their own, the "Now time," or the action-quantum. It is a unit possessing an explainable tangible aspect of time as universal space expands. Time also has its psychological aspect, the mental impulse, enabling the tangible "Now" to be stored and recalled. Not only can this image be recalled, it also may be projected into the future. The fact that a past "Now Event" can be recalled, gives us reason to believe in its tangibility. This "Now Event" is capable of being stored in such a manner as to be brought back into the present "Now," and reassembled with today's action-quantum to bring forth a new form. With a pictorial mental effort future events can be created, which is the way new inventions are produced.
To fully comprehend the concept of "Time" we must first understand the concept of the "Space Quantum Theory" that has to do with the expansion of space, which from such action results in time and energy. In short, the "space-time-energy" cycle. This cycle occurs micro-second by micro-second.
The Space Quantum Theory is not an effort to resurrect the ether theory, for space has a reality all of its own, the space quantum. The space quantum is a unit of space itself, not something that exists in space as the ether theory proposed. Maxwell thought of his electrodynamic theory of light as a disturbance of the ether, a material medium, similar to the disturbance that sound creates in the medium substance of air molecules. He pictured them similar to concentric circles of waves on the surface of water into which a stone had been dropped. Light has a constant speed, as well as all other electromagnetic waves that he predicted should occur in space.
Having said that, one may similarly picture the same occurrence happening in the space quanta field, only in four dimensions. In fact, one can view light as an action quantum of spacetronic energy, the same being Einstein's photon. This theory will show that the space quanta, not only maintains that photon, but that space expansion produces an impetus force responsible also for the motion of light through the spacetronic field. Light moves with a constant speed, designated by the letter 'C', because the exchange of energy from one spacetrnic field to another restricts this action to that perticular speed. What is more, we are able to measure this individual action-quanta, this impetus constant develop by the expansion of space. The space quantum unit itself is simply call the "Spacetron"; it is pronounced: spas-e-tron.
The basic premise of the Space Quantum Theory (SQT) maintains that space is not a vast void of nothingness as presently assumed, but rather it is composed of quantum units of space. Each unit, while being contiguous with the quanta surrounding it, sustains its own independent action with respect to those other space quanta in its vicinity. It has the power of self preservation that makes it indestructible, but this is not to say that it does not function as an array in a group.
The idea of space existing in a quantum configuration is a mind boggling concept for most people, since all have been taught that space is a void in which energy and mass ply interrelated experiences. Therefore, prejudicial thoughts prevent truly conceiving the space quanta and its power of action. However, with a little mental effort the concept of space, as being a quantized somethingness, becomes feasible.
One of the most difficult ideas to picture in the mind is unitized space, that is, picturing units of space because we have been taught that space is a disconnected nothingness. Therefore, one must think of "Space" in terms of a somethingness or perhaps it could be thought of as an esoteric substance as being different from matter as a substance. What this somethingness is cannot formally be described as mass because it is not accountable in terms of macroscopic matter. Mass that composes material form is nothing more then a modulation of the vibrations of this somethingness. Space presents a carrier wave, which, when modulated, exhibits physical energy and mass. This demands conceiving space as a detectable standing wave vibration of undetectable units which have an energy equal to C^2, devoid of material form as matter is currently viewed.
People think about reality based on the classical concept as dictated by Galileo and Newton. Now, they must think of space and time in terms of the "spacetime" that Minkowski, Einstein, and others engendered. These men welded time and space into a concept of "spacetime" that the SQT embraces. However, the SQT further stipulates that this "Spacetime Continuum" be in a dynamic quantized expanding state of being. What is more, the quanta randomly vibrates with the speed of light in all directions forming the carrier wave for energy that forms mass. Energy being a modulation of the expanding vibrating spacetronic field. The expansion of the vibrating space is "Time" that creates "Energy" that generates matter and form, even man's conscious being. Consciousness exhibited as being a function of spacetime. See Cosmic Time graph below.
All though it is not generally written or even thought about, space is in a constant state of expansion. It is not only expanding between galaxies, as cosmologists think, but it is also striving to expand at the very foundation of mass. The evolution of mass did not begin with molecules or atoms nor with the protons and neutrons that form the core or nucleus of atoms. Nucleons contain units named quarks. The SQT theory proposes that quarks are composed of internal units called "Spasons." See Neutron graph below.
"Spasons" are three oscillating string units of compressed spacetrons, forming a gyroscope, generated by the expanding spacetronic field. Three gyroscopic Spasons unite yo form a quark. They are surrounded by a spacetronic field in a state of flux forming the quark. Three quarks conjoin and coalesce to form the neutron. When neutrons leave the hot nuclei they freeze, and like water when it freezes, they expand. this back pressure forms a proton and consequently the electron pair. The combinations of these three particles form atoms, from which all matter is composed. When matter is created or otherwise stimulated, it radiates that added energy into its environment as heat and light.
A redefinition of matter was thrust upon us when a man named Planck, studying his results of black body radiation, discovered the only way he could satisfactorily explain this radiation was in terms of quantum units. Before Planck radiation was thought of as a continuous energy flowing from mass through a continuous space when matter was heated. Planck found the only way he could explain the phenomena of radiation was to assume that energy was cast off mass in quantum units, the reason, of course, is that space is quantized. Multiplying a specific number by the energy's frequencies, he arrived at the solution to many problems regarding radiation. SQT denies that space is continuous, giving a reason for energy energy is quantized and not continuous.
Planck called this number "h," the "erg second," thus, his famous discovery ushered in a whole new concept of energy mass and space. Physicist then thought of energy as quantum units moving through continuous space and mass as being a compound unit of energy existing in space. After this event, the energy quantum theory was proposed, which is radically different from the classical concept of mass, energy and space. Energy and mass was thought of as being independent of space except for being a stage to contain its action. The SQT changes this concept of mass and energy. Mass and energy is a modulation of the space quanta under the SQT concept.
Further study of matter reveals that its molecular structure is composed of atoms. Physicist discovered there were 104 different atoms that, in turn, were composites of neutrons, protons and electrons. Einstein claimed that radiation moved from atom to atom in the form of energy packets he called photons. The light photon is a wave packet that when it strikes an atom, it can knock an electron clear out of the molecular structure, creating electricity. In other words, when light is focused upon a metal object, it causes electrons to become free, which can then flow through a wire. Electrons are known to be larger wave packets of energy that create a magnetic field of force around the wire as the electrons move through the wire. This magnetic field, according to the SQT, is generated by the electrons passing through the spacetronic field causing the motion of the surounding spacetrons to line up around the wire depending upon the direction of the electrons.
Spasons, as well as all other units of mass, exist in a sea of expanding oscillating space quanta, the universal spacetronic field housed in infinity. The spason is the name given to a string of compressed spacetrons that exists as a dynamic field of mass energy. It is created and held together by an impetus force generated by the expanding spacetronic field. It is this force that moves the spason through the universal field, consequently, the motion of all mass.
Below is a picture of the hydrogen molecule composed of two hydrogen atoms. An atom is composed mostly of space. The electron extends a great distance away from the nucleus.
The spacetron itself has a frequency and wavelength, both of these are constants; however, even this field is in a compressed state of being, in and around atoms, which field generates the gravitational effect. An atomic explosion is caused when the release of a contracted spacetronic field takes place. Their natural universal expanded state of being is in accordance with the period of time in which they exist. The expansion containing gravitational strength spreads out with time, causing heavy elements to become radio active and decay.
The chart above is the way galaxies exit in our shy area.
All galaxies are moving at 600 km per second perhaps in a torus configuration.
The development of the theory of impetus by medieval physicists provided Galileo, in the late 1500 A. D. with a starting point for his own speculations. The theory of impetus was set forth by the Parisian philosopher Jean Buridan. It was based on observations about the motion of objects that had been made by the Greek writer John Philoponus in the sixth century A.D. John's intellectual sense was on the right track, but he never fully developed the reason why it should be as he thought.
Aristotle's assertion that it was the air that provided the motive force responsible for the violent motion of a body disturbed Philoponus. He reasoned, if that were true, agitating the air behind a stone should move that object, which, of course, it does not. Looking for an alternate explanation, he concluded there must be a motive force that resides within the stone itself. When a force was imparted to a stone by another object, the stone absorbed the force and simply continues to move until air resistance or a collision with another body stopped it. However, he gave no reason why that should be the case, it seamed to him an elementary fact.
Buridan gave this hypothetical force of Philoponus the name "impetus," which depends upon both the speed and the quantity of the mass in a body. He reasoned that even after the body received this impetus force the body would maintain that absorbed motion long after it lost contact with the mover. In fact, the body being moved, under ideal conditions, would continue to move in a straight line, at uniform speed forever, without interference. This idea is recognized as Newton's first law of mechanics. But neither Buridan nor Newton gave a reason how or why the impetus force should exist in the first place.
Buridan also used his theory of impetus to explain the behavior of falling bodies. Unlike many of Galileo's contemporaries, Buridan claimed that rocks accelerate as they fall, but like Aristotle, he wrongly assumed that a falling object acquired a velocity proportional to its weight. He supposed that the weight added a quantity of impetus to the falling rock, which increased it velocity, as it continued to fall. The object consequently moved faster and faster as it descended, until at last it struck the ground. It is an experimental fact, all objects fall at the same rate of speed on earth, it is 32 ft. per second, per second, regardless of their weight.
However, this same rock away from the earth, ponderable mass, does not immediately fall or move in any one direction; it simply floats around in space. Nevertheless, it still maintains that motive force function imparted to it when it was attached to the earth, which operates within the rock. This is the kinetic energy the rock received while attached to the rotating earth and now retains in space. The Space-Shuttle astronauts demonstrated this fact on one of their missions. The rock also obtained more kinetic energy from the Space-Shuttle rockets that put it into orbit around the earth. However, the rock simply floats around inside the Orbiter, as though it is unaffected by the earth's gravitational field.
The Space Quantum Theory carries this idea one step forward and claims that this kinetic energy is perpetuated by the impetus force. It is one of the basic principles of the SQT that the impetus energy is generated by the continual universal spacetronic expansion factor. The impetus force takes place at the fundamental level of the spacetronic field and impartially imparts its force to all physical mass units and their energies, gamma rays, light, heat, in fact, all electromagnetic energies. The impetus energy, generated by the expansion, individually imparts to each unit that forms the atom, a motive force. Impetus energy is a force that moves all physical energy and mass through the spacetronic field. The universal expansion pressure, generated in past expansion cycles, binds all atomic units separate and holds them together. The impetus force moves all energies given up by any atom out toward infinity.
When the atomic unit exercises its expansion wavelength, the impetus force restores it immediately, thus, causing a contraction frequency cycle. This force moves mass-energy though the spacetronic field; whereby, it performs another expansion wavelength cycle, and contraction frequency cycle. The spacetronic field furnishes the energy, a straight line path toward infinity.
Upon the end of the wavelength-frequency cycle, which is an energy's longitudinal thrust into the spacetronic field, the contractual energy immediately expands laterally creating the spectral line seen in the spectrum of the energy, which line indicates its frequency and wavelength. The spectrum is a band of colors, or the colored lines or bands, formed when a beam of light from a luminous body or incandescent gas undergoes dispersion by being passed through a prism or reflected from a diffraction grating; the series of colors, passing by insensible degrees from red to violet ( ordinarily described as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet), produced when white light (as sunlight) is passed through a prism, the white light being dispersed into rays of different color and wavelength, the rays of longest wavelength producing the color red, and rays of shortest wavelength producing violet. Thus, mass and energy jogs through the spacetronic field on the space quanta level. The spacetronic field is in a sustained state of expansion, viewed as empty space. Physical mass-energy must be viewed as contractual spacetronic fields held in that state by the sustained expanded spacetronic field as a whole. What is more, every contracted spacetronic field (mass or energy) was and is generated by an equal quantity of spacetronic field expansion, which is the counter part of that mass. In fact, the expanded field wraps around mass, holding it in a magnetic cocoon.
These fields, mass-energy and the expanded space quanta together form a system in equilibrium. The spacetronic expansion cycle generates mass that forms our universe. The universe is enclosed in an infinite spacetronic field in equilibrium. Neither mass-energy nor the space of the universe act independent of each other, but rather are dependent on each other and upon the infinite field in equilibrium, which holds them together as a single unit. The universe is in a constant state of growth and development provoked by the expansion factor of the spacetronic field.
Because the impetus energy is generated by the expansion of the primary units of space, the impetus force has an extremely short constant energy cycle. The primary unit of space is the spacetron whose contracted space quanta field constitutes the basic units of mass. We determine the impetus constant cycle by multiplying Planck's constant, h, times the speed of light constant, C, this gives us the impetus energy force designated by, I, which, consequently, is a constant:
The impetus constant reveals itself as being equal to the energy of an atomic mass times the wavelength of that energy. Any unit of energy given up by mass, as mass strives to come in equilibrium with the rest of the spacetronic expanded field, may be determined by dividing the impetus factor by its wavelength.
The individual spacetronic unit exists as a standing wave vibration that vibrates with the speed of light. Because the space quantum wavelength and frequency are constants, they have been given their own special designation. The wavelength constant is designated i^, it is an expansion cycle. The frequency constant is designated i*, it is a cycle of contraction. However, on the spacetronic level, since they individually vibrate back and forth in all directions, they constitute a standing wave vibration that mass and energy modulates forming the mass wave and particle of matter. The expansion cycle of mass or energy exhibits the wave aspect of the unit; the contracted cycle unit exhibits the particle.
C = i* i^....All three are constants of the spacetron.
C = f w......Are modulations forming mass - energy.
Because the spacetrons vibrate in all directions with the speed of light, the energy of the spacetron is equal to the speed of light squared. It has a relative mass of one from the physical point of view. The energy exhibited by the expansion of the spacetron is associated with Planck's constant h., that is, by dividing the speed of light square, C^2, which is a constant, by Planck's energy unit, h, which is also a constant, one arrives at the spacetronic frequency constant designate i*.
By dividing the speed of light, C, by the frequency i*, one derives the spacetronic wavelength constant i^, noted by the spacetronic equation above. C / i* = i^
The redshift of the light coming from distant celestial objects informs us the expansion of the spacetronic field is an ongoing phenomenon at the fundamental level of space, mass, and energy. The spacetronic expansion action creates an impetus force. The impetus force is transmitted impartially in all directions below and on the atomic level, and this occurs regardless of whether the atom is located in a body or in its polar orientation. However, the atom maintains the kinetic motion relative to the whole body and the impetus energy continues giving a body its vector directional force after each contracted cycle unless interfered with by an other energy.
The vector direction of the whole mass is determined by its initial and primary direction, that is, the quantity of the impetus force transferred to that body as a whole from another body as a whole. A gyroscopic action within an atomic mass is maintained by the impetus structural force, which maintains its direction. It should be noted that the impetus energy also operates upon bodies as a whole and may be recognized as the gravitational force discovered by Newton and expanded upon by Einstein.
In the first place, the impetus force is responsible for the internal gyroscopic action within the atom. Secondly, it structures atoms that coalesce into molecular congregations. This impetus energy is the gravitational force that assembled the molecular structures, which formations, eventually, fashioned the sun and all its planets. The expansion of the spacetronic field is predicated upon the known fact that the universal space is in a state of expansion, which was determined by the redshift of light originating in light sources many years ago.
The SQT assumes that space itself is quantized and vibrates with a discernible standing wavelength and frequency. It postulates that in the beginning the spacetronic field began to expand, which is responsible for the generation of mass. It assumes an inflationary expanding space generating pockets of energy maintained in a state of equilibrium. This is, judged from the fact that the over all expansion factor equals one, meaning that space and mass are in equilibrium.
Until cosmologists are able to see an end of galaxies, which they are unable to do today, they might just as well not be overly concerned with whether the expansion of space had a beginning or not. Nevertheless, it seems highly likely that it did have a beginning because looking out into the universe, and, consequently, back in time, the universe is seen as having more radio quasars and energetic light quasars in the distant past than they do galaxies. Judging from the redshift of the energy coming from those distant objects seen in the past, we realization that the universe is in a state of expansion.
According to the SQT, an established fact exists that space is still in a state of expansion, this very day, producing an impetus force. The spacetronic expansion contains all mass, and the impetus force moves all mass and energy around in the galaxy and, in fact, the whole universe. The expansion factor causes the redshift in the electromagnetic energy coming from distant celestial bodies. It spreads out the energy waves; as those waves travel through the expansion time of space, there seems to be no other reasonable explanation. Click to continue