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Light energy, for instance, that left quasars a billion or more years ago, experience a redshift in their frequency and wavelength. The reason is that the spacetronic field existing between the quasar and the earth has undergone many expansion cycles over the years. For this reason, the wavelength of the light is stretched out causing it to exhibit a redshift by the time it reaches earth's telescopes.

Planck's constant h was used above to determine the spacetronic frequency. In his work with the black body phenomena Planck was able to explain some of his wavelength-frequency problems by multiplying the frequency of any energy by a small number, called the erg second, which then gave him the quantity of energy of any wavelength unit.

E = h f

Einstein, working with the equations of mass and kinetic energy discovered that mass times the speed of light squared equals the energy of any mass unit.

E = M C^2

de Broglie is credited with substituting Planck's equation for the energy in Einstein's equation, giving Einstein's mass a frequency, and, consequently, a wavelength aspect, which leads to the equation for the momentum of mass.

h f = M C^2

Thus, SQT - h i* can be substitute for the C^2 in the de Broglie-Einstein equation, Planck's constant times the spacetronic frequency constant to reveal more facts about the relationship of mass and energy.

h f = M h i*

We may then subtract Planck's action quantum h from each side of the equation to reveal a new aspect of the equation, the rest mass of the proton.

f = M i* or f / i* = M

With this equation if the frequency of an energy is known, by dividing the spacetronic frequency constant into the mass frequency, that determines the mass. It makes no difference if it is mass or pure energy, the result will be the mass.

Another relationship may be gleaned from the de Broglie-Einstein equation relative to the SQT equations. By substituting C / w for the frequency of the energy and C / i^ for the space quantum frequency i*, another fact comes to light.

h C / w = M h C / i^ , therefore, i^ / w = M

Accordingly, we may determine the mass of an energy by dividing the space quantum wavelength by the energy's wavelength to obtain the energy's quantity of mass.

It is this impetus energy that creates the "Now Time" spoken about at the beginning of this composition. The Impetus force is the tangible aspect of time. Without the expansion of the spacetronic field that generates this force, time would stand still, the earth would stop rotating, and the times of the world would end.

Time began some 20 billions of years ago with the commencement of the expansion of the universe that generated the impetus force. This energy first coalesced into pockets. These pockets form the engine of the quasars, which are seen at the edge of the universe. Within the nuclei of these electromagnetic wave pockets, the neutron was developed, from which all atoms are generated. These hot energy pockets spewed out huge quantities of neutron mass, which developed into the proton-electron pairs in the freeze out in the outer spacetronic field. Most close in quasars have evolved into galaxies, those celestial bodies that are spread throughout the universe, the Milky Way being one.

Another important factor is that the expansion of the spacetronic field, which supplies the gravitational energy that binds mass together, is also the force that moves the electromagnetic wave through the spacetronic field and causes them to coalesce into a particle at the end of its wavelength and frequency cycle. Its wavelength might be though of as the units wave aspect, which is an amplitude, longitudinal wave. The contraction frequency cycle is the particle aspect since it coalesces at the end of each cycle and then expands laterally forming the spectral line before moving on through the field.

The spacetronic expansion factor is responsible for the pressure that forces the energy wave to remain in a packet and furnishes the impetus force to move it through the field with the speed of light. We know that mass itself exhibits a wavelength and frequency, even though it moves through the spacetronic field at a much slower pace than the linear phenomena, such as heat and light.

Matter is not usually thought in terms of its frequency and wavelength since people are moving alone with it. They see it by the light that reflex off the whole mass. Nevertheless, when matter is stripped to its elementary particles, in this event, it is thought of as electromagnetic energies. Consequently, as Einstein claimed, energy equals the mass of an object times the speed of light squared, E = M C^2.

Planck discovered that electromagnetic energy must be determined by multiplying the frequency of that energy by the erg second figure for h, E = h f. A French Prince named Louis de Broglie, who worked with radio waves during the war and was a connoisseur of chamber music, chose to look at an atom as some kind of musical instrument. de Broglei further thought that by combining Planck's equation with Einstein's equation, he could think of the electron in terms of a vibrating string, h f = M C^2. What is more, he imagined that each electron moving along a given orbit proposed by Bohr is accompanied by some mysterious pilot wave. Einstein called these pilot waves, ghost waves.

de Broglei by manipulating the combined Planck-Einstein equation came up with the notion that the wavelength of the pilot wave was equal to h divided by the mass times velocity; its momentum, P.---- w = h / M v -- or -- w = h / P

Further investigation proved his idea to be true because when a beam of fast electrons was passed through the successive layers of a crystal lattice, dark and light interference fringes appeared. This proved that electrons truly exhibited their selves as waves in the spacetronic field. Physicists have even created interference patterns with the other two particles of nature, the neutrons and the protons.

The SQT gives C square a more physical connection by claiming that C^2 = h i*. This idea can be appreciated more if the result is placed into de Broglei's modified equation of the Planck-Einstein equation,

h f = M C^2 or h f = M h i*

this equation can be reduced to ---

f = M i*

From this equation the frequency of mass can be determined by simply multiplying the quantity of mass by the space quantum frequency i*. As a matter of fact, the frequency of any energy can be divided by the space quantum frequency to arrive at the mass of the unit using the equation, f / i* = M, or the wavelength of mass can be divided into the space quantum wavelength i^, which will equal the mass. There is one other equation, knowing the wavelength of mass one can determine the energy,

I / w = E

Below are noted the values of the physical constants as given in the Texas Instrument student calculator mathbook # TI-35 II. These figures can be used to verify the Space Quantum Theory's equations as given above. The mass figures given below are for their rest mass, the Compton frequency and wavelengths are approximate; the exact figures are given in the mathbook # TI-35 II. Those mathbook figures make the answers come out exactly.

Unit........ Mass.......... Energy.....Frequency.... Wavelength

Neutron.... 1.6749 -27.....1.50 -10..... 2.27..23......1.32 -15

Proton...... 1.6726 -27.....1.50 -10......2.27..23......1.32 -15

Electron....9.1096 -31..... 8.19 -14.....1.24..20......2.43 -12

Blue......... 7.3674 -36......6.62 -19..... 9.99..14.....3.00 -7

C=2.997925...8.....C^2 = 8.9676...6......h = 6.626 -34

i^ = 1.3564 50..... i* = 2.2103 -42....... I = 1.9865 -25

Numbers should be raised by the power of 10,

as in: I = 1.9865..10^-25 or G = 6.6732..10^-11

THE RED SHIFT

The Space Quantum Theory postulates that the redshift is caused by the expansion of space as time goes on and not from the idea that astronomical bodies are streaming away from use. As a matter of fact the Earth's closest galactic neighbor, Andromeda, is moving toward the Milky Way. Another fact is that the Earth's galaxy belongs to a congregation of universal galactic clusters and superclusters moving in the same direction with relatively the same speed. What this means is that man must rethink the consequences that are taking place in the universe under this new concept.

For one thing, the redshift indicates how far back in time these astral objects can be seen. The idea that the space quantum was not as large as it is now because of the spacetronic expansion that has taken place during the intervening time gives rise to the question, " What effect did this action have on those celestial bodies?" What is more, under this concept, where did the mass come from to form bodies in the first place?

The theory claims as the space quantum unit expands, it gives up energy in the process, meaning it generates spacetronic contractual motion, and since that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, then, that energy or spacetronic contractual motion had to either wonder off into infinity or to assemble into pockets. It is proposed by the theory, infinity housed the universe from the very beginning of the expansion time; hence, the energy converged into pockets. Having said that, pockets of energy were not immediately generated in the very beginning, but rather an inflationary period occurred at first forming an elliptical hole in infinity. (The idea of inflation was also proposed by Alan H. Guth and Paul J. Sreinhardt, Scientific American, May 1984, pp. 116-28 in an effort to overcome some problems with the Big Bang theory) The spacetronic expanded field, at first formed a Riemannium continuum. As the expansion time proceeded, a shell of contracted spacetronic energy generated, but due to the continual expansion pressure toward infinity, the spacetronic motion curled back on itself eventually pinching a hole through the center of the ellipse, thus generating a universe with a torus topology.

The spacetronic field's impetus force might be described by Einstein's general relatively field equations, however his time dimension, over a long period of time must be modified to include the SQT expansion factor The Schwarzschild solution's to Einstein's equations, specifically the first coinciding with an ideal body of a contracted spacetronic motion, generated mass points in the central stream that moves around the torus girdle.

The second solution corresponding to a spherical spacetronic motion of finite extent, creating a number of bodies that began to accumulate and circulate throughout the torus, their quantities increasing with each pulse of expansion time.

In the first solution, know as the "Schwarzchild solution," the gravitational radius appears to be the starting place from which the expansion-time-metric extends throughout the spacetronic field to infinity. Provoked by the impetus expansion factor over long periods of time, any energy given up by the point mass moves out in all directions, however, intimately associated with the point mass during its journey through the spacetronic field. Any detection or interference with its progress toward infinity at any one particular point, it instantly coalesces. Its opposite counterpart, the so called soulmate, riding on the same infinite cosmic spacetronic string immediately knows from where it came, having the corresponding opposite orientation. Its interconnectedness, established by way of the vibrating spacetronic universal string, requires no informational travel time.

SQT METRIC FORMATION

Einstein's general relativity field equations are sufficient to describe the Space Quantum Theory's metric formation around mass; however, its forth dimension must be changed into a two dimensional structure of space expansion-time plus the impetus spacetronic force.

Also, the SQT claims the spacetron has a relative mass of 1 kg, giving each unit an energy of C square with a wavelength, designated i^, and a frequency i*, both of which are constants compatible with the action quantum h and the speed of light squared.

The contractual spacetronic motions accumulated in pockets that eventually became radio quasars. These quasars evolved into mass quasars. The quasars, then, developed into the galaxies seen in the heavens today.

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