**
The development of the theory of impetus by medieval physicists
provided Galileo, in the late 1500 A. D. with a starting point for his own
speculations. The theory of impetus was set forth by the Parisian
philosopher Jean Buridan. It was based on observations about the motion
of objects that had been made by the Greek writer John Philoponus in the
sixth century A.D. John's intellectual sense was on the right track, but he
never fully developed the reason why it should be as he thought. Aristotle's
assertion that it was the air that provided the motive force responsible for
the violent motion of a body disturbed Philoponus. He reasoned if that
were true agitating the air behind a stone should move that object, which of
course it does not. Looking for an alternative explanation, he concluded
that there must be a motive force that resides within the stone itself. When
a force was imparted to a stone by another object, the stone absorbed the
force, moving a little faster, and simply continues on until air resistance or
a collision with another body stopped it. However, he gave no reason why
that should be the case, it seamed to him an elementary fact. Buridan gave
this hypothetical force of Philoponus the name "impetus" which depends
upon both the speed and the quantity of the mass in a body. He reasoned
that even after the body received this impetus force the body would
maintain that absorbed motion long after it lost contact with the mover. In
fact, the body being moved, under ideal conditions, would continue to
move in a straight line, at uniform speed forever, without interference
toward infinity. This idea is recognized as Newton's first law of mechanics.
But neither Buridan nor Newton gave a reason how or why the impetus
force should exist in the first place. Buridan also used his theory of
impetus to explain the behavior of falling bodies. Unlike many of Galileo's
contemporaries, Buridan claimed that rocks accelerate as they fall, but like
Aristotle, he wrongly assumed that a falling object acquired a velocity
proportional to its weight. He supposed that the weight added a quantity
of impetus to the falling rock, which increased its velocity, as it continued to
fall. The object consequently moved faster and faster as it descended, until
at last it struck the ground. However, it is an experimental fact, all objects
fall at the same rate of speed, on earth it is 32 ft. per second^2, regardless
of their weight.
**

**
However, this same rock away from the earth, ponderable mass, does
not immediately fall or move in any one direction; it simply floats around
in space. Nevertheless, it still exhibits that motive force function imparted
to it when it was attached to the earth, which operates within the rock. We
call it kinetic energy, a motional force the rock received while attached to
the rotating earth and now retains in space. The rock also obtained more
motional force from the Space-Shuttle rockets that put the ship into orbit
around the earth. The Space-Shuttle astronauts demonstrated this fact on
one of their missions. However, the rock simply floats around inside the
Orbiter, as though it is unaffected by the earth's gravitational field.
Nevertheless, it is effected by the gravitational field of the earth since it and
the Shuttle are being pushed toward the earth causing the Shuttle and all its
contents to fall in an orbit around the earth.
**

**
**

The Space Quantum Theory proposes that space is quantized. It claims the gravitational field is not caused by any attracting power of the sun or earth, which would call for action at a distance, but rather it is motivated by the 'expansion of the universe.' That is, the expansion of the space quantum, which I call the 'spacetron.'

The first law of thermodynamics states that "energy may not be created or destroyed but rather only transferred from one system to another." The expansion of the universal space quantum requires energy be given up by the space quanta in the expansion process. This spacetronic energy (motion) is transferred from one group to another. The energy transfer is a motional force that is transferred by the contraction of another group of spacetronic units. Since all spacetrons are in a state of expansion, the contracted group immediately expands generating an 'impetus force'. This motional energy is consequently transferred to other groups of spacetronic units. This ''impetus force' exerts a pressure force on all physical mass and energy throughout the universe.

The Space Quantum Theory claims that the expansion and the impetus motional force is the cause of the gravity of the universe. The expansion force not only generates the gravitational force that holds mass together, but it also maintains the state of rest of mass, relatively speaking, which we call the inertia of mass and or maintains its relative rectilinear motion as the case may be. This is the reason that gravitational mass and inertia mass are equal, since they both arise from the same cause, the expanding universe and the impetus force it generates

The result of this action is the creation of a moving contracting-expanding field of spacetronic motional waves in all directions. It is these waves that act as an impetus force that maintains the rectilinear motion of mass and energy so long as they are not acted upon by any other external force. It is this impetus force impinging on the internal particles of the atoms of mass that furnishes the motive force, which keeps the atoms of mass moving after being set in motion.

The spacetronic field vibrates at the speed of light squared, thus each space quantum unit maintains a standing wave vibration at the speed of light in any one direction. Because of the second law of thermodynamics --"motion can only be transferred from a higher state of motion to a lower state of motion and not the reverse" -- the impetus force generated by the expansion factor vibrates half as fast as the spacetronic field unit. It vibrates at the speed of light. It is a force that moves all electrons around the protons creating the atom. It also travels at the speed of light throughout the universe pushing physical mass and energy in their vector direction of travel. It maintains the motion of mass and is the reason all electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light.

Newton's penetrating mind paved the way for us to understand physical realities. He claimed matter is real, undergoing changes which we conceive as movements in space; space and time being real forms. To deny the physical reality of space is like trying to denying the law of inertia, its preposterous. We know that acceleration of mass is real, therefore, space must be conceived as real within which acceleration is produced.

This is the reason Newton called space "absolute." Besides space and time to his mind there was a third independent reality, the force acting between two material bodies that depended only on the distance between them. He conceive this force as a condition associated between particles.

Physicists after him considered there existed only two kinds of matter. Matter that could be weighed and matter called electricity. Matter acted upon each other under Newton's law of gravity, a force inversely proportional to the distance between them. The particles of electricity acted under the law of Coulomb forces, also inversely proportional to the distance between them. However, there existed no law regarding the forces that existed between particles that could be weighed and particles that were considered electrical. I intend to bring to light the force that exist between so called weighty particles and electrical particles.

Space was only considered as the stage upon which material occurrences played a role. Empty space was not believed to be a carrier for physical changes and processes. Newton conceived light as material particles moving through empty space by means of a special force acting between ponderable matter. Moreover, even in the eighteenth century it was already clear from experience that light traveled in empty space with a definite velocity, a fact which obviously fit poorly into Newton's theoretical system, for why on earth should light particles not be able to move through space with any arbitrary velocity?

Furthermore, the Huygens-Young-Fresnel wave theory of light over threw Newton's theory that light was a particle. Their theory indicated that the light waves caused the appearance of interference and diffraction. In fact, this theory upset the view that everything real can be conceived as the motion of particles in space. Light waves, were, after all, nothing more than undulatory states of empty space, and space thus gave up its passive role as a mere stage for physical events. I intend to show that even ponderable matter is nothing more then undulations in empty space.

The ether was invented, penetrating everything, filling the whole of space, and was admitted as a new kind of matter. The ether was considered to be a sort of matter which could nowhere be removed. It was to some degree identical with space itself; that is, something necessarily given with space. Light was thus viewed as a dynamical process undergone, as it were, by space itself. In this way the field theory was born as an illegitimate child of Newtonian physics, though it was cleverly passed off at first as legitimate.

Faraday was the man who became fully conscious of this change in outlook. He instinctively revolted against forces acting at a distance. In his experiments with electricity, he claimed, if one electrified body attracts or repels a second body, this was for him brought about not by a direct action from the first body on the second, but through an intermediary action. The first body brings the space immediately around it into a certain condition which spreads itself into more distant parts of space, according to a certain spatial-temporal law of propagation. This condition of space was called "the electric field." The second body experiences a force because it lies in the field of the first, and vice versa. The "field" thus provided a conceptual apparatus which rendered unnecessary the idea of action at a distance. Faraday also had the bold idea that under appropriate circumstances fields might detach themselves from the bodies producing them and speed away through space as free fields: this was his interpretation of light.

Maxwell then discovered the wonderful group of formulae which seems so simple to us nowadays and which finally build the bridge between the theory of electro-magnetism and the theory of light. It appeared that light consists of rapidly oscillating electro-magnetic fields.

After Hertz, in the '80s of the last century, had confirmed the existence of the electro-magnetic waves and displayed their identity with light by means of his wonderful experiments, the great intellectual revolution in physics gradually became complete. People slowly accustomed themselves to the idea that the physical states of space itself were the final physical reality, especially after Lorentz had shown in his penetrating theoretical researches that even inside ponderable bodies the electro-magnetic fields are not to be regarded as states of the matter, but essentially as states of the empty space in which the material atoms are to be considered as loosely distributed.

There exists among physicists a dissatisfaction with the dualism of a theory admitting two kinds of fundamental physical reality: on the one hand the field and on the other hand the material particles. Material particles as structures in the field, that is, as places where the fields were exceptionally concentrated. Any such representation of particles on the basis of the field theory would have been a great achievement, but in spite of all efforts of science it has not been accomplished. It must even be admitted that this dualism is today sharper and more troublesome than it was years ago. This fact is connected with the latest motivation of developments in quantum theory, where the particle field theory verses the discontinuous particle structure.

The special relativity theory owes its origin principally to Maxwell's theory of the electro-magnetic field. This explains why his 1905 paper on relativity was entitled: "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." "Electrodynamics" is the study of electric and magnetic forces, and in this paper Einstein was concerned with explaining the way that electric and magnetic fields act on moving charges and especially how these various actions are interrelated. He combined this with the empirical fact that there does not exist any physically distinguishable state of motion which may be called "absolute rest." The theory also discarded the absolute character of the conception of the simultaneity of two spatially separated events.

Up to that time the electric field and the magnetic field were regarded as existing separately although Maxwell's field equations gave a close causal correlation between the two types of field. But the special theory of relativity showed that this causal correlation corresponds to an essential identity of the two types of field. In fact, the same condition of space, which in one coordinate system appears as a pure magnetic field, appears simultaneously in another coordinate system in relative motion as an electric field, and vice versa. This reduced the number of independent hypotheses and concepts of field theory and heightened its logical selfcontainedness characteristic of the theory of relativity. For instance, the special theory also indicated as essentially identical conceptions' of inertial mass and energy. Thus the equation: E = MC^2

The general theory of relativity starts from a fact of experience which admits the equality of inertial and gravitational mass, or, in other the words, the fact known since the days of Galileo and Newton that all bodies fall with equal acceleration in the earth's gravitational field. (To me this indicated that both are electro-magnetic in nature or else we would have to deal with two different natures of space. Its like saying we need two different sensory units: one for hearing and one in order to keep our balance when in effect the ear system covers both sending messages to the brain.)

The theory uses a special theory as its basis but claims there is no state of motion whatever which is physically privileged - that is, that not only velocity but also acceleration are without absolute significance. It then compels a much more profound modification of the conceptions of space and time than were involved in the special theory. For even if the special theory forced us to fuse space and time together to an invisible four-dimensional continuum, yet the Euclidean character of the continuum remained essentially intact in this theory.

In the general theory of relativity, this hypothesis regarding the Euclidean character of our space-time continuum had to be abandoned and the latter given the structure of a so-called Riemannian space. Before we attempt to understand what these terms mean, let us recall what this theory accomplished.

It furnished an exact field theory of gravitation and brought the latter into a fully determinate relationship to the metrical properties of the continuum. The theory of gravitation, which until then had not advanced beyond Newton, was thus brought within Faraday's conception of the field in a necessary manner; that is, without any essential arbitrariness in the selection of the field laws. At the same time gravitation and inertia were fused into an essential identity. The confirmation which this theory has received in recent years through the measurement of the deflection of light rays in a gravitational field and the spectroscopic examination of binary stars is well known.

Theories are compelled to pass more and more from the inductive to the deductive method, even though the most important demand to be made of every scientific theory will always remain: that it must fit the facts.

We now reach the difficult task of giving to the reader an idea of the methods used in the mathematical construction which leads to Einstein's general theory of relativity and to the Space Quantum Field Theory.

The general problem is: Which are the simplest formal structures that can be attributed to a four-dimensional continuum and which are the simplest laws that may be conceived to govern these structures? We then look for the mathematical expression of the physical fields in these formal structures and for the field laws of physics - already known to a certain approximation from earlier researches - in the simplest laws governing this structure.

The conceptions which are used in this connection can be explained just as well in a two-dimensional continuum (a surface) as in the four-dimensional continuum of space and time. Imagine a piece of paper ruled in millimeter squares. What does it mean if I say that the printed surface is two-dimensional? If any point P is marked on the paper, one can define its position by using two numbers. Thus, starting from the bottom left-hand corner, move a pointer toward the right until the lower end of the vertical through the point P is reached. Suppose that in doing this one has passed the lower ends of X vertical (millimeter) lines. Then move the pointer up to the point P passing Y horizontal lines. The point P is then described without ambiguity by the numbers X Y (coordinates). If one had used, instead of ruled millimeter paper, a piece which had been stretched or deformed the same determination could still be carried out: but in this case the lines passed would no longer be horizontal or vertical or even straight lines. The same point would then, of course, yield different numbers, but the possibility of determining a point by means of two numbers (Gaussian coordinates) still remains. Moreover, if P and Q are two points which lie very close to one another, then their coordinates differ only very slightly. When a point can be described by two numbers in this way, we speak of a two-dimensional continuum (surface).

Now consider two neighboring points P, Q, on the surface and a little way off another pair of points P' and Q' . What does it mean to say that the distance P Q is equal to the distance P' Q' ? This statement only has a clear meaning when we have a small measuring ruler which we can take from one pair of points to the other and if the result of the comparison is independent of the particular measuring ruler selected. If this is so, the magnitudes of the tracts P Q, P' Q' can be compared. If a continuum is of this kind we say it has a metric. Of course, the distance of the two points P Q must depend on the coordinate differences (dx. dy). But the form if this dependence is not known before hand is of the form:

ds2 = g11dx2 + 2 g11 g22 dx dy + g22 dy2

Then it is called a Riemannian metric. If it is possible to choose the coordinates so that this expression takes the form: ds2 = dx2 + dy2 (Pythagoras's theorem), then the continuum is Euclidean (a plane).

Thus it is clear that the Euclidean continuum is a special case of the Riemannian. Inversely, the Riemannian continuum is a metric continuum which is Euclidean in infinitely small regions, but not in finite regions. The quantities g11, g12, and g22 describe the metrical properties of the surface; that is, the metrical field.

By making use of empirically known properties of space, especially the law of the propagation of light; it is possible to show that the space - time continuum has a Riemannian metric. The quantities g11, g12, and g22 , applying to it, determine not only the metric of the continuum, but also the gravitational field. The law governing the gravitational field is found in answer to the question: Which are the simplest mathematical laws to which the metric (that is the g11, g12, and g22) can be subjected? The answer was given by the discovery of the field laws of gravitation, which have proved themselves more accurate than the Newtonian law. This rough outline is intended only to give a general idea of the sense in which Einstein spoke of the "speculative" methods of the general theory of relativity.

The general relativity theory that brought together the metric and gravitation would have been completely satisfactory of the world had only gravitational fields and no electro-magnetic fields were taken into consideration. But it is not true that the latter can be included within the general theory of relativity by taking over and appropriately modifying Maxwell's equations of the electro-magnetic field. The gravitational fields have a structural property of the space - time continuum and is logically of an independent construction. The two types of field can not be causally linked in this theory or fused to an identity. It can, however, scarcely be imagined that empty space has conditions or states of two essentially different kinds, and it is natural to suspect that this only appears to be so because the structure of the physical continuum is not completely described by the Riemannian metric.

The new Space Quantum Expanding Field Theory removes this fault by displaying both types of field as manifestations of one comprehensive type of spatial structure in the space-time continuum. The stimulus to the new theory arose from the discovery that space is quantized and in a state of expansion. My opinion is that our space-time continuum has a structure of the kind vastly different than the one now contemplated.

The mathematical problem whose solution, in my view, leads to the correct field laws is to be formulated thus: which are the simplest and most natural conditions to which a continuum of this kind can be subjected? The answer to this question which I will to give in a new paper yields unitary field laws for gravitation and electro-magnetism.

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