Make your own free website on Tripod.com

VACUUM POLARIZATION

After inventing relativistic quantum field theory in the 1930's and 40's, physicists came to realize that what they thought was a nothingness, a vacuum, was not at all empty. They thought of it as a plenum, actually consisting of particles and antiparticles being spontaneously created and annihilated. John Wheeler at the University of Texas said, on high in a plane the ocean looks smooth, but in a row boat it is choppy and turbulent. The same with space; on high it appears as a vacuum, a down right nothingness, but up close all hell is braking loose. Virtual particles are all over the place, but only for a period of Heisenberg's uncertainty relationship. Thinking about the tiny little invisible springs filling all of space, the vibrations of the virtual quanta seem to be above the level of the actual corresponding real particles. These vibrations act like waves in the vacuum, which represent possible quantum, or invisible quantum, because they are directly undetectable quanta. These new vacuum effects were found to exist in the empty space between the atomic nucleus and the orbiting electron. This field can sometimes create a positron-electron pair out of the churning sea of virtual quanta, which pair immediately annihilates. It is called vacuum polarization and it changes the electrons orbit. Willis Lamb, according to Pagels, measured the electron of a hydrogen atom with great precision using microwave techniques. Lamb's measurements compares with the quantum electrodynamic theory which has great success with this interaction. They now have operational high-energy machines that beam electrons against oppositely directed positrons to provide enough energy to bring virtual particle pairs in the vacuum into real existence; they are even able to pull quark-antiquark pairs into existence from the vacuum. The new charmed quark and antiquark pair is just a tiny wave on the vacuum ocean, consequently, given the right amount of energy it brings into existence a new hadron.

QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS

Physicists are now able to mathematically describe the interactions of quarks, leptons, and gluons using a quantum field theory they call quantum chromodynamics. It seems to follow similar ideas developed by the quantum electrodynamics and as one physicist put it, as though physicist have run out of new ideas. Today physicists use the gauge field theory with a new twist, called renormalization procedures, in calculating the interactions of virtual photons with electrons. Comparing the results with experiments there is remarkable agreement, but only after they adjust the parameters to fit the facts. Quantum chromodynamics use six different quarks, some leptons and eight gluons that stick quarks together to form hadrons, the real particles, like protons and neutrons. The physicist have machines that can make other kinds of hadrons, but they all brake down into the proton, neutron, electron and neutrinos of the real world. The remarkable thing about this theory is that, hard as they try, no one has yet seen a quark, the spason that form quarks is not even thought of. Quarks just do not exist in the world out side of the nuclear hadrons. The theory claims these trapped particles give mounting evidence that the totality of strong-interaction physics is due to completely hidden forces of nature. (These hidden forces are revealed by the SQT.) No body seems to know what these hidden forces are or how they are generated, however, I hoped to fathom them by presenting a new theory which is called "The Space Quantum Theory." It is not only involved with these hidden forces and how they act and interact with the dynamics of the world, and the thermodynamic theory that some physicist claim will one day cause the universe to collapse in a Big Crunch, as opposed to the Big Bang that is supposed to have created the world, but it also explains the mechanism holding the world together in a stable condition.

THE HOT BIG BANG


The Big Bang theory is the result of a speculative idea that had its beginning in the years from 1912 to 1923 by Vesto Slipher. The astronomer made careful measurements of the shift in the color of light emitted by nearby galaxies. He found that most galaxies had light that shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. Light from objects moving away shift to a lower frequency, similarly to the lowering of the sound of a train's horn, when the train is moving away from us. It is called the Doppler Shift. Hence, Slipher's discovery was called the "redshift" A cosmological model invented by Willem de Sitter influenced by the solution of one of Einstein's general relativity equations by the Russian mathematician, Alexander Friedman, in 1922, predicting an expanding universe, fitted nicely with Slipher's observations; the redshift was referred to as the "De Sitter effect." Edwin Hubble became extremely interested in this redshift phenomenon during the 1920's. He spent a great deal of time taking measurements of celestial objects, and came to the conclusion that they indicated the distance of an object. In 1929, he announced his data indicated that the galaxies were moving apart at a rate directly proportional to their distance from the Milky Way. The distant is measured in light years, thus, giving the number of years ago that light left the celestial object. These measurements, made in light years, also tell how far back in time they can be seen. The estimate by present day cosmologist is that the birth of the universe happen, somewhere about 20 billion years ago. See Fig 8

It was then assumed by cosmologist that since it appears the universe is in a state of expansion and all galaxies are moving away from one another, then, at one time, their energies must all have been squeezed together in one place, at one point, before the beginning of time. They calculate that the life of the universe began with a Big Bang. George Gamow and his colleagues, back in 1948, predicted that the universe began with a Hot Big Bang. That, about one hundred seconds after singularity, one quarter of all the protons and neutrons that had been created earlier, should have changed into helium, along with a small amount of deuterium. This prediction fitted the facts that 25 percent of the mass of all matter in the cosmos was helium, the other 75 percent being made up mostly of hydrogen, with a small percentage for all other elements. Another significant idea of they assumed was that after so many billions of years, what was an extremely "Hot Universe," had cooled down to a very cold universe of about five degrees Kelvin.

THE SPACE QUANTUM CONCEPT

In 1963, a theory called the Space Quantum Theory was published by the author. It postulated that all space is infinite in extension and that it is quantized giving the quanta the name spacetron ( pronounced spas-e-tron ). It further postulates that all mass in the universe is compose of vibrating spacetrons. The theory does not start the universe with a Hot Big Bang, but rather with an inflationary period, followed by a period of the accumulation of many energy pockets which evolved into quasars. In 1964 Arnold Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered this 3 degree background radiation of Gamow by accident which proved to be truly distributed evenly throughout the whole universe. The excitement generated by the discovery of the Fossil Glow, as it was called, seemed to indicate the correctness of the Big Bang Theory, so the development of the SQT was discontinued for the time being in 1964. Many cosmologist since have come to believe that the Hot Big Bang is probably the way the universe began, but there are exceptions. Stephen Hawking, the very gifted mathematician of black hole fame, in an 1985 interview with John Boslough said, "The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormously high". He along with others are finding its concept hard to reconcile with new particle theories that have been contrived recently. What John Wheeler said about viewing the ocean on high in a airplane - it looks smooth, likewise when viewing space from on high it too looks smooth, but up close in a boat on the high seas the water is rough and churning, likewise down on the quantum energy level all hell is breaking loose in the form of virtual particles, this together with what Hawking's said encouraged me to further development of the SQT.

THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE

The galaxies apparently stretch away into space without end, as far as can be determine from observation. The general distribution of these celestial units seem to have large-scale homogeneity and isotropic, that is, it manifests the same physical properties in all directions. Cosmologist speculate, judging from the redshift in the spectrum lines emitted by the atoms in a distant galaxy, their wavelengths indicate they are moving away, not from any motion of their own, but rather by the expansion of the space between galactic clusters. This means that space within the cluster, or for that matter within a galaxy, is not expanding, rather, cosmologist think the pure unadulterated space between galaxies is in a state of expansion, the galaxies are just going along for the ride. Does the measured values of the wavelength, judging from the redshift, really imply that the galaxies are receding from the Milky Way, or could there possibly be some other explanation for the phenomena? Problems with the Big Bang, and its various implications, that all mass once existed in a space not even as large as an atom, have many astronomers and physicists searching for some alternative explanation, ever since the idea was presented. They seem to think that this scenario requires a cosmic god to light the fuse of the cosmic bomb to get the universe started, which they reject. Any idea, so far conceivable, seems to require a prime mover to get things going. It appears that scientist are only capable of devising the universe after they have passed through the doorway of the exact moment of creation. It is left up to the philosophers, metaphysicians, and theologians to open that door and to peer back into the beyond. Hawking and Brandon Carter believe the universe is the way it is today for if it were otherwise, there would be nobody to ask the question; why is the universe the way one seems to observe it? They discovered nature exhibits an extremely delicate balance between the four forces of the universe in its present day existence. For instance, they claim that if the strong force was any weaker, the only stable atom would be hydrogen. Simply no other elements could exist, consequently, the world as known it would not exist. John Wheeler at the University of Texas, believes in the endless cycles of cosmic expansion and contraction. He agrees with Hawking and Cater who believe that the universe is fine-tuned to produce life, the anthropic principle. He claims that any universe that does not produce life is stillborn and is a failed universe. This is the principle of "observership". It is an extension of the quantum idea that without an observer there is no subatomic physics. That is, without an observer there is no need for a master builder of physical laws and consequently a need for a creation. It seems ever since Einstein declared that there was no ether, or even a need for an ether in order for electromagnetic waves to propagate, the ideas of space became unintelligible, a void, in the advance of cosmology. Not that his idea was necessarily incorrect, the Michelson and Morley experiments found no ether wind associated with the movement of the earth, but because cosmologist gave up the idea of finding a solution to how electromagnetic waves propagated, light and energy became a thing unto its self with no other means of support.

THE SPACE QUANTUM CONNECTION

There is a "Missing Link" between the understanding of relativity, on the one hand, and quantum mechanics on the other. The problem physicists had in the past with uniting the theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, has to do with symmetry. The theories do not seem to be compatible. The Theory of Relativity deals with space structure, while Quantum Mechanics concerns itself with the material substance in space. They are as far apart as night and day, but like night and day there is a connecting factor. Where relativity looks at the universe and the world with intent on discerning its structural qualities, quantum mechanics sees the world in terms of its individual mass parts, that is, when it can find them, for they seem elusive and statistical at best. There is a quantum of uncertainty that goes along with the quantum of reality, because it cannot say exactly where things are. At best, quantum mechanics can only tell where is the best place to look, in order to find a particle, but when found its momentum is unknown, since it must be stopped or changed by the detection.

Einstein relates that light itself, the electromagnetic wave of space, moves with a constant speed and no material thing can move faster in space than light. Material things can not move with the speed of light or else they become light, and when light is slowed down, it becomes mass, potential energy. Perhaps the most crucial significance Maxwell describes, concerning energy or electrodynamics, is the very operation of the elasticity of space, space that restores itself, which sustains energy. Space is quantized! This is the Space Quantum Connection.

THE NEUTRON

It is an experimental fact, there is a fundamental quantity of potential energy, the neutron, which space can support and maintain in its potential state of being, and this, only within the atom. Outside of the atom the neutron decays into a proton-electron pair, plus a neutrino. All other quantities of potential energy brake down through the decay process into these units. These are the only units that space is capable of maintaining and supporting in this day and age for any great length of time. It is a postulate of the Space Quantum Theory that time alters the quality and quantity of space. As a matter of fact, it is the contention of the theory that this alteration of space, that is, the result of space expansion, is time, without spacial change time has no meaning. Without environmental change time is meaningless. It is also compatible with the theory that higher development of the elements were once tolerated by the spacetronic field that are now prohibited. When they are forced into existence today by high energy machines they immediately decay into the normal particles. Perhaps one could detect these higher elements in the galaxies as they existed thousands of years ago. The means is at the disposal of cosmologist to travel back in time via the light that emanated from celestial objects long ago. If higher elements could be found to exist in the light spectrum of those distant galaxies it certainly would be a plus for the Space Quantum Theory.

The theory predicts that the expansion of space requires the creation of neutrons, but it also predicts that the decay of mass of higher elements occurs, thus, balancing the energy of space expansion that is responsible for holding neutrons together. The adjustment occurs with time, for instance, the decay of uranium and other radioactive elements requires many years. Having considered Newton's Laws, Relativity, Maxwell's Equations, Quantum Mechanics, the expanding universe and the notions of Stephen Hawking and John Wheeler it is now time to have a look at all of these ideas from a combined perspective.

THE SPACE QUANTUM THEORY

The theory claims that all space is quantized and since it is already known that the space between the galaxies is in a state of expansion, hence, it must be understand that each spacetron, as the space quantum is called, individually is in a state of expansion. Spacetrons do not occupy space. They are space, that is, they are vibrating integral units of a "3-D Dynamic Universal Field"; each unit having an inalienable right to a certain quantity of space, and a certain quantity of energy; a self-sustaining pressure; consequently, its space cannot be transferred without compensation. It means that if a spacetron expands to occupy more space, then, it must exercise a quantity of energy (pressure) in return for the space it has acquired. By the same token if a spacetron takes in energy, (pressure) that is, acquires more internal pressure than it is entitled to have, it must give up a portion of its space in return for the acquired energy.

LAWS OF THE SPACE QUANTUM THEORY

1. The Law of Self Preservation: -the space that composes the universe is quantized; the quantum is called a spacetron; - the spacetron cannot be destroyed.

2 . The Law of Compensation: - when a spacetron expands it gives up energy, (looses pressure) it takes in space, when a spacetron gives up space it takes in energy. (gains in pressure) (This is in occordence with Newton's third law)

3. The Law of Evolution: - the expansion of the spacetron generates the impetus force that creates radiant energy and mass.

4. The Law of Motion: - the impetus force moves radiant energy and mass through the spacetronic field.

5 The Law of Space. The energy of the spacetronic field equals C^2. All spacetrons that compose space are space quanta in a state of vibration with energy equal to the speed of light squared.

6. The Law of Mass. Radiant energy and mass in the universe equals the amplitude frequency modulations of the spacetronic field by means of expansion and contraction of spacetronic units.

7 The Law of Creation. The creation of the universe began when excited energy pockets evolved into quasars and galaxies about 20 billion years ago. Spacetrons that compose radiant energy, vibrating at the speed of light, propagated energy linearly through the spacetronic field, and this energy field is termed, the electromagnetic wave; light, heat, radio, and others. Spacetrons that compose mass vibrate below the speed of light. They transmit this energy through space in an electromagnetic rotory manner that we call neutrons, protons, and electrons, which form atoms. Atoms create molecules that form all matter.

THE RED SHIFT

The theory simply assumes that time began when the universal field first began to expand, thus, creating pockets of contracted spacetrons that generated high energy spacetronic waves which moved with the speed of light between the packets. These electromagnetic waves are now being detected by radio and optical astronomers and the further back in time these units are seen the greater the redshift of their light. This redshift is caused by space expansion between celestial bodies. The theory refutes the idea that these distant celestial units are speeding away with almost the speed of light. In fact, it claims they maintain a relative uniform distance and are pushed together into superclusters leaving huge voids. See Fig 9

Fig 9


The question then remains, "Why does the light coming from these object produce a redshift?" It is caused by the expansion of the spacetrons that exist between those bodies and the Milky Way, as the passage of time proceeds. As these spacetronic units expand, by the "Law of Compensation", other spacetronic units must contract and in the process create mass and radiant energy. Therefore, celestial bodies do not move apart because of this expansion factor. It seems more likely that as mass is rapidly created in the central nuclei, relatively close galaxies can even be pushed together in spite of the expansion of the spacetronic fields between them, and because of the expansion of fields around them, like Andromeda, which is moving toward the Milky Way.

Back in the 1960's when the SQT theory was first composed, Martin Ryle and his colleagues at Cambridge were making extensive counts of the number of radio sources that can be detected in the sky. Some of these sources have a high intensity and others are much weaker. Ryle sorted out these many sources defining the various categories by experimental measurements. What Ryle discovered was that the strongest radio sources are the ones that originated billions of years ago, at the edge of the beginning of time. Ryle's survey shows that galaxies are not the strong radio sources, rather, galaxies are poor radio wave emitters. This suggests an evolutionary trend from radio galaxies, in the distant past, to the huge mass generating spiral galaxies that propagated into the many clusters and supercluster of galaxies seen. The first conglomerate of energy is thought to be radio galaxies, whose pockets of compressed spacetrons gradually grew in size and formed into a more compacted, less vibrating, spacetronic fields. The compacted field caused by the expansion of the universal expanding field impinging upon it, emits various radio waves generated in these pockets. As pockets grow, more and more spacetrons compress and their vibrations became less and less active, until they freeze into what I call "Spasons", which form a vibrating string field of rotationing energy moving around as a compact field of vibrating spacetronics.

SPASONS CREATE QUARKS THAT CREATE NEUTRONS

The theory conceives compressed units of spacetrons line up in short strings, oriented in east west, north south, up down positions. They form centers of spacetronic vibrations that move along universal superstrings that stretch from one end of the universe to the other. The short string spasons associate in units of three, positive (N. S.), negative (E .W.), and neutral (U. D.) strings, they form gyroscopes. While spacetrons are 10^40 meters by comparison the spason string is of the Planck length, 10^-35 meters . Three spasonic fields assemble to form what are now identify as quarks. Quarks associate together in units of three, also, to form a basic unit of mass. When this formation, caled a neutron, is pushed out of the atomic compressional center; since it has given up all of the space it is capable of giving up, any further impingement of energy becomes kinetic. In this new environment they decay and form a proton and an electron, the hydrogen atom, which form the molecules. Fig 10 and 11

Fig 10


THE HYDROGEN MOLECULE

Very shortly the neutron, in its liberated environment, decays to form a proton-electron pair, the hydrogen atom; a compressed nucleus and an expanded field. The unit absorbs and gives up a quantity of universal compression energy, as the case may be. This energy is in the form of electromagnetic waves, enabling the unit to stay in equilibrium with the universal spacetronic expanding field. The units also unite to form molecules, absorbing neutrons to further stabilize the mass. Fig-11 represents the hydrogen molecule made of two deuterium atoms. It is not according to scale, in any sense of the word. For instance, if the area of the atom was enlarged to equal that of Philadelphia, the nucleus would be the size of the statue of Billy Penn that sets on top of City Hall; the electrons would be circling around in the suburbs. All particles of mass are organized electromagnetic rotory waves, existing in the universal spacetronic field of energy which constitutes the world. This mass organization is depicted in the figure below as conceived by the Space Quantum Theory.

Fig-11

The energy field surrounding the molecule is composed of space units called spacetrons. The organized mass units named spasons are groups of highly compressed spacetrons; strings of spacetrons forming gyroscopic spacewaves. Three strings form the gyroscopic units, two positive (moving), one negative (axial); it takes three spason units to form the quark. Quarks group together in threes, forming neutrons, with two down and one up quark; the protons have two up and one down. On encountering a neutrino, the energy of an energetic spacetronic field, one of the neutron quarks flips and the neutron becomes a proton. If it encounters an antineutrino the quark flips back and the unit becomes a neutron again.

THE QUARK

Three spasons combine to comprise the quark. Three quarks form a hadron which can be either a neutron or proton. The neutron has two down quarks and one up quark. The proton has two up quarks and one down quark. The energy field of the quark is called a gluon and it is this force or boson that operates in the "Strong Field" that bind quarks together as one unit, a neutron or a proton. The proton-electron constitutes a hydrogen atom. The proton by absorbing the energy of a neutrino can switch to a neutron and by the same token a neutron, by giving up the neutrino, the spason binding energy, can switch to a proton. ejecting an electron, one of the spason strings. This whole process is generated by the spason within the quark and the force field which operates between the nucleus and the electrons of atoms and also between atoms themselves, the electromagnetic field called the photon. The diagram above is not according to scale. The atom as well as all mass is composed of modulations upon the universal field of spacetronic energy, which expansion impetus constantly supplies force to the particles of mass. This impetus force is required for the movement and organizational existence of mass. The spacetronic expansion factor is the force that binds all mass together and can be measured in electron volts. The molecules are larger and easier to break apart since their binding energy is the existing expansion of the spacetronic field call gravity. Its energy is appreciably less on this level.

Click to continue

Number of hits---