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MASS GENERATORS

The Milky Way galaxy shows signs of being a mass generator. There is evidence that huge quantities of atoms of hydrogen are swirling around the nucleus, as are various kinds of other atoms and molecules. No doubt, the vast majority are hydrogen atoms; that form the stars. This evidence indicates that hydrogen atoms are generated in the nucleus forming clouds, about 25% coalesce forming helium, both are coalesced by the compressional effect of the expanding field into the stars of the Galaxies. Stars in turn generate higher orders of atomic mass by the internal spacetronic pressures that builds up and forces hydrogen atoms to combine; they create helium. Helium burning stars create all the other elements found on earth. It is thought by some cosmologist, a black hole exist in the center of quasars, which can be the first stages of the creation of neutrons that split to form atoms. Some small stars, called white dwarfs, become so compressed, having densities of ten tons per cubic inch, radiate all of their heat into space and fade into darkness; perhaps also into black holes. Other large stars generate so much heat and energy that they collapse in a catastrophic event, which blows them apart. The exploding star, called a supernova, spray their heavy elements throughout the Galaxy. These, in turn, form other stars like the sun that produced the earth, in which all those other created elements are found. In turn, the earth generates the molecules of life creating all the wonderful things upon it.

Even inner galactic space is strewn with hydrogen clouds that spawn new stars, giving evidence to an evolutionary trend of mass and energy. The Universal spacetronic field holds all matter together and feeds the galaxies new energy in order to create more hydrogen. The very fact that hydrogen is used up, burned up in the creation of new stars, requires a source, a process whereby new hydrogen can be generated. This makes the idea of galaxies, as mass generators, very viable; and the primary cause of events, the expansion of space, as set forth by the SQT. The Big Bang cannot supply this requirement very succinctly, since it starts out with all energy in a single unit, the singleton. Some think that even void space needed to be created for its energy to propagate into, which is beyond the mind to conceive. It only works with mathematics, which only requiring logical reasoning. Even the great mathematician Einstein was reluctant to accept the tenants of the Big Bang. It was necessary to conceive such an idea since the Doppler Effect indicated that these distant units were all moving apart. No one thought of a different reason for the redshift. The Space Quantum Theory requires this redshift to occur since the time dilation of space effects the electromagnetic wave passing through it, spreading out its wave form. The spacetronic "Law of Compensation" requires a stable universe in equilibrium. Descartes said, there is no such thing as independent empty space, space is the extension of mass. The SQT turns that statement around and says, there is no such thing as independent mass, mass is space in a state of compression, forming spacetronic waves, held in that state of being by the universal spacetronic expanding field. (USEF)

THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES

There are four recognized fundamental forces of nature:- the Weak, the Strong, the Electromagnetic, and the Gravitational force. These four forces are facilitated by energy fields called bosons. There are four fundamental units of mass in nature that the four forces control: the Spason, Quark, Atom, and Molecule, in that order. These mass units are formed basically from spacetrons, the space quanta which, in fact, we call space. The SQT claims the fourth force, gravity, is created by the expansion factor. According to the SQT the first three force fields are generated by the Impetus force, I, which force is created by the expansion factor, the expansion pressure itself is responsible for gravity. The Impetus force is also responsible for the motion of energy and mass. The theory claims that all of the four force fields are created by the expansion factor, each dominating their own domain. While all mass units and their forces are spacetronic waves operating at the speed of light or below, all other spacetronic units vibrate in all directions at the speed of light, i.e., with the speed of light squared, creating a standing wave vibrating field. The expansion pressure of the spacetronic field operates on molecules, grouping them together by what we call the gravitational force. This force is simply the expansion pressure that operates throughout the whole universal field, and through all mass and energy, moving mass together in its wake. The impetus field generated by the expansion factor is the creative force of the universe that operates as universal energy superstrings.

PARTICLES THAT STAY LINKED

Is there an experiment that would lend credibility to the spacetronic superstring scenario? Yes, it has to do with the EPR paradox. EPR standing for Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen who formulated it to show a flaw in quantum mechanics. The enigma still remains. It seems that when a certain particle disintegrates its parts fly off in opposite directions. The Classical view is that the two particles know their exact direction and orientation at each instant of time. This is not in agreement with quantum mechanics. The Quantum view states that between the moment of disintegration and the moment of detection, no direction or orientation can be assigned to the particles. Experiments prove the Quantum view to be correct. Excited calcium atoms produce two photons, let us say a yellow and blue one. These two particles fly off from their source in opposite directions at the speed of light, because of their former electromagnetic relationship they stay in similarly oriented with one another, simply because they were associated with the same "Universal String", as predicted by the Space Quantum Theory. Their continuum are phase related and remain that way due to the universal superstring they are modulating until they are detected. Because they are riding on the same "Cosmic Spacetronic String" their phase-relationship correlates. Their motions are not only relative, but when one is detected to be in a particular direction and orientation, the other soul-mate unit will immediately imitate the same opposite orientation it had before they were separated. The communication existing between each other is instantaneously knowledgeable, because the vibrations of the universal string they are riding on instantaneously correlates their energies. It should be noted, this superstring, maintains a standing vibration at C squared, stretches from one end of the universe to the other. The units are moving away from one another in opposite directions on that string at the speed of light, which constitudes a hidden variable, . Regardless of how far away they move from each other, as long as neither one is intercepted or detected, their modulations are finitely phase related via the cosmic spacetronic string. See fig 12 below

As a matter of fact, all electromagnetic waves that leave their origin of emission, become independent of that source, while moving away along a string, the wave maintains an integral orientation toward that unit, and in such a manner that an observation of that origin can be recovered billions of years later, regardless of what direction away from the observer the celestial object happens to be.. It is this superstring that gets bent out of a straight line path close to the sun, which becomes noticeable when star light passes close by the sun. Even the light of a quasar can get intercepted and focused upon the earth appearing to be two identical quasars on each side of a galactic lens. They appear with the same redshift that differs from the intercepting galactic field of influence, because the light from the quasar left that source, perhaps, a billion light years ago. See Fig 13 below.

EARTH'S ORBIT

If one can comprehend the orbital motion of the earth around the sun according to the SQT, then, one can understand all relative gravitational affects between celestial objects. All mass causes the spacetronic field to bend around it. The pressure of the expanding field impinges upon a mass from every direction, causing each mass unit to have a common center of gravity. The gravitational field strength decreases as it ascends from that center out to infinity. Therefore, every unit of mass can consider itself to be an individual center relative to infinity.

Associated mass and energy are impelled toward a common center that exists between them. The earth is actually gravitating toward the common center that exists between it and the sun; due to the earth's speed in its orbit around the sun, it follows the geodesic which the sun's mass sets up in that field.

Likewise, the moon orbits the earth in the same manner. The gravitational effect between the moon, sun and earth causes the tides . See fig 14 below

GALACTIC EVOLUTION

The galaxies seen in the local part of the universe began as an electromagnetic pocket of energy in the infinite spacetronic field billions of years ago. This is known because radio astronomers report this is what they see when they look out into the universe and calculate the time that the detected signal left its source. By the same token, those same radio pockets are now galaxies, much like the local ones; and likewise, when they look back in time, in our direction, they see the Milky Way as it was when it existed as a radio pocket billion of years ago. One should now realize that those same galaxies can look in the opposite direction. What does you think they will see? -- Yes, more galaxies and in the distance, radio pockets in the process of becoming galaxies like their own. This gives the reason for believing that the universe is shaped like a donut, and the gigantic void may be part of the center of the torus.

This brings up an interesting point about the energy intercourse between galaxies. The fact that galaxies can be seen by their light, created in a different spacetime than the present time, it makes a difference when comparing their light spectrum with those of similar atoms.. When the spectrums from the light of atoms in the local spacetime continuum, are compared with spectrums of light of the same atoms from other galaxies not in this cluster, created in a different spacetime billions of years ago, there is a definite redshift in the their spectrum of light by comparison. This condition is due to the expansion of universal space.

As spacetime unfolds creating mass in the galaxies, the field units slowly expand exchanging energy for space; mass is created in the galaxies, due the law of compensation. Wherefore, the light energy wavelength is spread out as it passes through space. In the SQT concept, galaxies are not speeding away from one another with almost the speed of light, which sounds preposterous according to Einstein's relativity theory; the redshift is caused by the expansion of space as it creates mass in galactic centers.

See Fig 15 and fig 16 that graphically shows the galactic space-time-energy field as space expands creating more mass in the center of celestial units in the one graph. The other graph shows the space-time-energy field as that field is modulated by the electromagnetic wave. The spacetronic field is in a state of expansion at the very core of the atomic structure. The expansion of the field coalesces atoms to form stars due to its pressure and decays heavy atoms due to its expansion an the atomic level. The expansion pressure coalesces molecules that combine to form the earth and the other planets in the solar system.

THE VARIOUS SPACETRONIC FIELDS

Einstein's general relativity equations were given solutions by Alexander Friedmann, Howard P. Robertson and Arthur Walker. They are called FRW solutions. FRW assumes three different homogeneous and isotropic three-dimensional space continuum. There is one of infinite hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature, in which the sum of the angles of a triangle is less than 180 degree. Another one indicates a finite space of positive constant curvature, whose sum of the angles in the triangle is more than 180 degrees. Then there is the infinite flat space in which the sums of a triangle add up to 180 degrees, with which all are familiar, the Euclidean space. The SQT favors Euclidean expanding inter-galactic space and non-Euclidean contracting space within the galaxy, both acting together. This expanding space, as explained before, creates pockets of energy which radiates electromagnetic waves of energy between each another; hence, aiding one another in the evolutionary build up of compressed spacetronic waves. These waves coalesce to form vibrating spasons. Spasons are gyroscopic units assembled into what are call quantum field particles, quarks, that act as a quantized mass which form neutrons. These neutron field units decay to form proton-electron pairs; that is, conglomerates of mass forming atoms that in turn form quantized matter, molecules. Molecules, of course, form the earth. A spacetronic force that facilitates in holding the field together acts at each quantum field level.

A spason field is created and maintained by the basic superstring expanding spacetronic field force, called the impetus force which superstring force acts as a guiding wave for energy and mass. The field is weak because the expanding superstring of spacetrons are meeting head on, thus, creating three contracted strings called a spason. It is this field that becomes so weak, due to the expansion factor, that decay radiation occurs in the heavy atoms. Since spacetrons can not be destroyed there is a limit to the amount of compression spacetrons are capable of absorbing. When this limit is reached the three resulting strings that form the spason absorbs further energy by gyrating in a spacetronic field of motion. The spacetrons do not change places, the circular motion performed is by means of expansion and contraction of the spacetrons of the spason field. Three spasons form a quark. Three quarks form a hadron. The hadrons (neutrons and protons) are held together by the strong spacetronic field force, even though the pressures are finitely spread out, they are strong at these compressed nuclear positions. The atoms that associate together to form molecules are held together in molecular structures by the spacetronic electromagnetic field force, the nucleus positive and the electron negative. Molecules are held together by the spacetronic expansion pressure we call gravity, which is the ultimate impetus of the spacetronic field force that, due to its wide application, is by far the weakest of all the spacetronic field forces.

Each mass unit, as it vibrates, radiates energy between one another. In the Weak Field the energy is called W and Z units. In the Strong Field they are called gluons because they are thought of as gluing the protons and neutrons together, since protons normally repels one another outside of the nucleus. Around the nucleus is found leptons (electrons), which forms the outer shell of the atom. Atoms inter-change electromagnetic waves called photons. Molecules are held together by the gravitational field pressure. It is thought that a unit called the graviton flows back and forth between the molecules; however none have bind detected, the SQT claims the expanding spacetronic field exerts a pressure on all molecules, causing them to accelerate toward one another. It is thought that the spacetronic field between molecules is weakened, since each unit interferes with the others compressional fields which holds their energies in tact, consequently, they are accelerated toward one another by the impetus force of the spacetronic field. This is not to say that molecules do not create their own spacetronic field unit because they do. The photons they create, when purposely vibrated, are called matter waves, and the instrument that creates these beams are called masers (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) The fundamental theme that permeates the whole Space Quantum Theory is that all spatial and physical actions are performed by the process of expansion and contraction of spacetronic units which force is quantized and reciprocal.

THE THERMODYNAMICS OF THE UNIVERSE

As the second law of thermodynamics dictates, there is a loss in any heat system. The galaxies are no exception to the rule, even though its entropy is small over billions of years; the contraction produces some heat radiantion. It has been known for years that the further out into space one looks the redder the light appears coming from the distant galaxies. It is called the redshift effect, because when the spectrum of light is analyzed from distant celestial objects, their spectral lines show definite shift to the red side of the spectrum, and further out one looks the greater the redshift. It should be realize that the further out into space one looks the further back into time celestial objects are seen.. For instance, it takes light from the closest star four years to get to the earth. Light from the furthermost quasar takes 15 to 20 billion years. Light is an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength with a periodic frequency. Since space is expanding it stands to reason that electromagnetic waves, which are an operation of that space accourding to Maxwell, the wavelength must be spreading out. This wavelength has the same speed from all emitters from all places from all times. For instance, the emitters are quasars, their atoms emit the same type of light that are known and analyzed here on earth; notwithstanding, their wavelengths were created billions of years ago and have been traveling through space that has been expanding for all those years. Just on the bare surface of the idea, as Maxwell claims, if we think that space is the carrier of the wave one could suspect the expansion of space might have a shifting affect upon the wavelength of the light that has been moving through the expanding space for billions of years. However, considering the SQT, this expansion is taken up by the contraction of the spacetrons forming the quasars, therfore, the expansion does not indecate that the quasars are being move away from one another, due to this expansion. Nevertheless, when an emitting object is moving toward the earth the wavelengths received are shortened because of this motion, and the light appears bluer. When the source is moving away the wavelengths spreads out, and appears to be redder. To see this, one first notices that the time requiring a particular wave-crest to travel from the source to observer is simply the distance between the source and the observer divided by the speed of light. When the source of the wave is moving away the distance increases from one crest to the next. Hence, the time delay between emission at the source and reception at the observer increases also, from one crest to the next. This means that the crest reach the observer with progressively longer time delays. In other words, the time interval between the arrival of successive crests is more than the time interval between the emission of successive waves from the source. Since the waves always pass the observer at the standard fixed speed of light, it follows that the distance between the wave-crest must be farther apart than it would be if the source was stationary. The light, therefore, appears redder to an observer, because the wave is spread out more than it would be to anyone who happened to be moving with the source, when that source is moving away. Nevertheless, remember, the expanding spacetrons absorbs space and gives up energy to those contracting units that creates mass, a balance is reach, therefore quasars are not speeding away from us , as is supposed. However, the expanding space is the cause of the redshift just as if the quasars were speeding away from us, the seeming motion of the distant quasars is a fictitious motion. Consequently, contracted spacetrons created billions of years ago have evolved into quasars and then galaxies like the local group. The universe is almost a perfect adiabatic system, but not quite.

In 1965 two physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, were testing a very sensitive microwave detector and discovered a frequency that indicated a constant temperature of space in all directions of about three degrees Kilven. What this means is that the spacetronic fields between galaxies, since they began to create electromagnetic white hot spots, has been gradually warming up. The hot energies that pours back into the field do not completely coalesce to the state of equilibrium, but have shifted to 2.7 degrees Kilven. Where it had started out at zero Kilven degrees the universal spacetronic expanding field is now 2.7 degrees Kilven, having developed this heat energy from the thermodynamic process and shared by all celestial units. As the expansion slowly takes place with time, more energy is pumped into the center of the galaxies due to the spacetronic field contracting, and more energy is therefore, extracted from the expanding field due to this expansion. This is the "Law of Compensation" in action. Consequently, even though the spacetronic field is expanding, the galaxies remain relatively in the same place or move in consort. This action is not without cost, a gradual loss surrounds the system, which creates the background noise. The expansion energy loss does have its affect on the light moving through it. This loss of energy in the spacetronic field spreads out the electromagnetic wave giving it a redshift as time proceeds. The further back in time objects are seen the greater this redshift. See Fig 17 -- below

The wave crests emitted by the source are not spread out as they would be if the motion of the quasars were real. Remember also that the light wave becomes independent at the source once it leaves that source, meaning that the waves leaving the source are all regularly spaced, there is no spreading out of the light rays at the source, or at best minimal due to their local motion. The real cause of the redshift is due to the expansion of the universal field, and the residual energy not recoverable in the process. This residual weakening is the result of the imperfect Universal Adiabatic Process which adds to the 2.7 degree Kelvin temperature background noise at the beginning of infinity as time proceeds. Perhaps the way the universe keeps time. See Fig 18

It should be noted that this loss does not effect the gravitational pressure which remains constant in the galaxy. Incidentally, Einstein thought that if the quantum theory of energy and general relativity could be combined, this would result in a unified-field theory of all forces. The real difficulty for him was not realizing that his idea of space and time being continuous sets of points are really space quanta in a state of expansion, creating the impetus factor. The missing link between quantum mechanics and his general relativity theory is that the universe is in a state of expansion yielding this impetus factor, and that mass is being created in the galaxies of the universe by means of the reciprocal expansion and contraction law of the SQT. It will remain the "Missing Link" until it is brought into play in the thoughts of relativistic mathematicians. Time in Einstein's equations must be replaced with the expansion time of the SQT in his equations. Space is not just a mathematical abstraction employed in distances between bodies, rather, space exists with sufficient internal structure to permit the definition of inertial frames relative to mass, however space itself is not to be considered a physical inertial frame, rather a metaphysical frame of reference.

UNIVERSAL GALAXIES THE MASS GENERATOR

The Space Quantum Theory proposes that all space is quantized in units which are call spacetrons (spas-e-tron). One is able to conclude, for approximately the past 15 to 20 billion years, these space units have been expanding at a uniform rate, determined by the redshift in the light coming from distant galaxies. The redshift is caused by the weakening of the energy in the universal spacetronic expanding field previously noted in the Universal Adiabatic Process. Further, it is assumed that space is composed of discontinuous units of extension, capable of expanding and contracting with the speed of light squared. They vibrate in all directions, in a random manner, inwardly and outwardly, which minute action can be recognize as a spacetronic field of energy. They form a spacetronic standing wave field that supports all the electromagnetic wave action including the molecular motion, in addition to atomic motion. Creation and destruction of virtual particles gives a good reason for suspecting that space is not a void, coupled with the fact that space is in a state of expansion, both are thought to be factual. If it can be determined that space is not a void, one can then agree with Descartes when he said: ---

"There is no empty space, extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space." Einstein 136

Einstein thought to prove this idea was correct when he devised the general relativity theory, which states that mass exhibits geometric properties in the space around it. Einstein tried to conceive space to be "arbitrary continuous transformations." 156

However, his theory lacks two very important assumtions; one is that space is quantized, the other is that these quanta are in a state of expansion. Regardless, Einstein discovered that space around mass is non-Euclidean, but when he formulated the general theory of relativity it was not known that space was in a state of expansion, at that time. Nevertheless, it does not mean that the geometric properties of space around mass necessarily emanates from mass, on the contrary, this is exactly what Einstein proposed to eliminate in his general theory. As was said before, Newton and Einstein both claimed that gravitational acceleration is independent of the mass or the energy being accelerated inwardly toward the center of a mass, be it a neutron, proton, atom, molecule or a massive planet like earth.

If gravitation is independent of the mass it accelerates, than, gravity must emanate from the space that exists around mass. Hence, in order for it to influence mass of every description, is it not reasonable to suppose that space is quantized; and that it plays an integral part in creating mass, in the first place, due to the expansion of the space quanta? Secondly, space maintains mass as a unit by the pressure exerted upon mass by the expanding quanta of the universe. This being accomplished by the impetus force created by the expandsion of the spacetronic field as a whole.

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