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Gravitaty Mass = Inertia Mass

Einstein, having succeeded in developing his special theory of relativity and not being completely satisfied with the exclusion of accelerating inertial systems, went on to develop the general theory of relativity. Other physicist meanwhile developed quantum mechanics to account for the physical aspects of the newly discovered quantum fields. Einstein's general theory of relativity was devised while he was trying to understand the equality of inertial and gravitational mass. He starts out from a physical point of view of supposing a space completely devoid of matter or of electromagnetic field. In this space he proposes another reference system of space moving in uniform acceleration. It is not an inertial system; it is simply a moving space wherein a test mass would move with an acceleration independent of its physical significance. For instance, like a ball falling to the floor of a box being accelerated up into space that is far away from ponderable mass. He claims that this space cannot be distinguished from a gravitational field, it is equivalent to an inertial system. He extends this idea of the "principle of equivalence" to any relative motion of a reference system of four-dimensionally, non-linear transformation of the four co-ordinates corresponding to moving spaces. With the introduction of Riemann equations and conditions (tensor calculus) he describes in terms of functions of co-ordinates (Gik) the pure gravitational field by solutions of the gravitational equations. Einstein finally claims, like Descartes, there is no such thing as empty space, a space without a field; spacetime does not claim existence on its own, but only as a structural quality of the field. Einstein tried to conceive physical reality in the gravitational field equations of his general relativistic field theory, as described by the Minkowski's spacetime metric equations. He failed to do so, because he did not know, nor did he realize that space is quantized; and, each unit is in a state of expansion as spacetime proceeds, mass being a rotating energy of spacetronic motion.

Einstein was able to explain in great mathematical detail how mass affected spacetime, but in the final analyses he failed to explain why mass should affect spacetime. Just as Newton's model was unable to explain why mass should attract one another. Newton realized something was wrong with the idea of action at a distance without any intermediate intervention, for he said in affect, anyone in his right mind must realize there exist a fallacy, but he was unable to frame a hypothesis. Einstein didn't think about any intervening interference one way or another. He had already determined in his own mind that space was empty, and gravity was a spatial non-Euclidean condition of space, caused by the presence of mass. Because of this spatial condition the moon orbits the earth and the earth orbits the sun. Newton said that masses attract each another by a force that is proportional to the product of the gravitational mass of the two objects divided by the square of the distance between them. It is the simplest most uncomplicated statement one can make which enables calculating the force of what appears to be an attraction between two objects. It only says there is a force acting between the two objects; it does not say what that force is, or why there is a force between the objects in the first place. The force is entirely invisible, like Einstein's space with a ball in it, and according to Einstein's analysis, the force does not even exist if an object is all alone out in space far from ponderable mass in a box he is about to accelerate, until the box is accelerated. Nevertheless, even though Einstein says no gravitational force exists until an acceleration takes place, it does not mean that gravitation around the ball does not exist. Newton said; the gravitational mass is equal to the inertial mass, and Einstein agreed. A person must assume that even though no force is discernible it does not mean that it is not there. As a matter of fact, it is there, acting upon all the individual atoms, holding them together in molecular structures, which constitutes the object.

It only becomes detectable when that mass is acceleated. If an atom had flees and one jump up it would fall right back down again toward the center of the atom, onto its surface; the same with molecules. Regardless of an objects size, whether it be one atom or many atoms, it is the atoms that give an object its existence in the first place, and consequently, its inertial mass. From this idea, one must conclude along with Einstein and Newton, gravitational mass and inertial mass are one and the same thing. What is this force, this weight or inertia, that holds things together? Thinking of these as different properties of matter, are they really two different properties, or the same property expressed in different ways, depending on how they are measured? Physicist measures energy as being a particle in one determination, and as being a wave in another measurement. What is the correlation between these two measurements of gravity and inertia; this phenomena of nature?


Analyzing these conditions, gravitational mass measures the strength of a force by which one object attracts another . The misleading word in this statement is attracts. It must have grated on Einstein's nerves because he became upset with the idea that an inanimate thing could reach out across empty space and grasp another object and drag it toward itself. His solution was to suppose ponderable mass modified space in such a way as to have another object relatively close by, moving in a straight line, to follow a curved path toward its center or if its velocity was such, to follow a path around it; therefore, there was no attraction involved between objects, just modified spatial aspects. He went to great lengths to prove his point and finally did, with the aid of the tensor field theory.

What about inertia? Physicist say that inertial mass is the measurement of the resistance an object offers to a change in its state of motion. In the first place, according to Newton's laws, a body will not move on its own volition, it remains in a state of rest, if that be its state of being. This means that inanimate objects have no power to determine action on their own. It does not mean that an object has the power to resist action on its own, it simply means it cannot act on its own. Like the word attraction, resistancealso is an ambiguous word. It certainly can be misleading because inanimate objects have no power of their own to exercise any resistance, let alone resist action in the sense that they can strive against being moved; it simply means it takes power to move them.

Attraction and resistance, two words having ambiguous meanings, trying to describe two very important aspects of mass. If mass does not attract and does not resist, what do people really mean to be relating concerning the properties of mass using these ambiguous words? What in fact are these properties? Can these properties have anything to do with why it is difficult for one to view mass as both a particle and a wave? On second thought, is the so called attraction and resistance really properties of mass, or are they the result of some other phenomena of nature, for instance, some action emanating from space itself? When one ponders this question, "What in fact are the properties of mass that causes a person think that they exhibit attraction for one another, and resists being moved by one another?" A person is beset with prejudicial ideas they have been taught which makes them respond, "What do you mean, what does one mean? Every one knows what is meant." In reality, one never even thinks about what is meant, for they draw upon their bias opinions.

Einstein says that the moon is not attracted to the earth, it is simply moving in a straight line, even so, that straight line is a curved space, a geodesic. It is a line that bends around the earth. The solar system follows a geodesic around the center of the galaxy. Einstein claims that the sun distorts the space around it forming a deep well in space, therefore the earth, which would normally travel a straight line according to Newton's first law, follows the distorted line which is a geodesic around the sun. Its centrifugal force keeps it from falling into the well, created by the sun's distortion of the space which curves around it. Newton says that the sun and earth attract one another because mass attracts mass. The sun being a larger mass creates the greatest attraction, hence, the earth moves toward the sun. Furthermore, Newton claimed: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, therefore the earth, by exerting an opposite reaction rotates around the sun; centrifugal force is a fictitious notion. The Space Quantum Theory declares that the sun and earth are held together by the expansion pressure of the expanding space. Solar planets are being forced toward the sun by the expansion of the sun's surrounding spacetronic field which creates a tremendous pressure on to sun's gasses, causing them to fuse. Planetary centrifugal forces comes into play, the expansion force pushes them back, counterbalancing this effect, creating the geodesic orbit. The geometry of curved surfaces around mass, discovered by Einstein, is a natural phenomena caused by the expansion factor. The centrifugal force of the Earth follows the geodesic around the sun, according to the Gik equations of the tensor calculus theory that Einstein invented to explain the phenomena, however, the equation needs the expabsion factor. See Fig 21 -- below


For that matter, it can very well be that the centrifugal force of the vibrating nucleus creates the electric field, the positive, negative field due to the outward pressure created by a centrifugal force between the proton and the expanding spacetronic field. The field holding the unit in tact and feeding it the energy to move. The electron is maintained by the expanded spacetronic field resulting from the interplay between the two fields, which generates the magnetic flux. The neutron does not have this interplay because it is protected by the electric field of the proton against the expanding field and therefore it is a neutral energy. This of course is only speculation that needs investigation.

The neutron, outside of the nucleus of the atom, creates the electronic field in about 15 minutes by the interplay between it and the expanding spacetronic field, whereupon, it becomes a hydrogen atom. When the hydrogen atom looses its electron shield it becomes a positive ion, a compressed spacetronic well. This single proton lacks the energy to render it neutral against the surrounding expanding field, and it is what physicist call a positive electric charged field, a compressed spacetronic field. A free electron, an expanded spacetronic field, a negative charged field, when it comes close to the proton, it is pushed into the proton field and the both again become a hydrogen atom. A negative electric field, moving in a wire creates a current of electricity. (It is unfortunate that these fields were named in the reverse order of the actions they perform by Ben Franklin; the proton should have been the negative unit and the electron the positive unit, since it is the unit that causes things to happen, like electricity and lightning).

If, in reality, attraction and resistance are not the properties of mass, then, it must be the interplay of the forces of space holding mass in one place in space, relavive to all other mass, (realizing that the whole conlamerate of mass is in a constant motion throught the spacetronic field in the first place,) until and unless it is forced to move through space by an outside force, for instance, the collision with another mass units. If mass has no power to move on its own, and this goes for all mass, what produces the force that moves mass? The only other thing in existence besides mass and energy is space expansion energy, which brakes down into the impetus force that moves all energy and mass and the spacetronic pressure the holds all mass and energy together. Therefore, one must conclude that the impetus force created by the expansion of spaceis real, and that it is the moving force responsible for individual action of the mass an energy particles. The universal spacetronic expanding field not only creates mass, it also creates motion. It produce the impetus force which moves all energy while the expansion pressure maintains the unit as an integral entity! The phenomena one should be aware of is the fact that all things are in motion, in the first place. Motion in the continuum of the galaxy as it moves though the universe, motion in the Solar System, and motion of the earth. When a person considers all ramifications of motion taking place he must ask the question, if mass cannot move of its own volition, where does the motion come from? The answer simply is that it is created by spacetrons as they gives up energy in expanding. It is known that the universal space is in a state of expansion, in the first place, regardless of what one thinks; it is the cause of the redshift. It seems logical to assume that the force of gravity is the result of the space expansion factor, pushing mass together, since energy is given up in the process of space expansion. However, in order for space to have an affect on mass in its most elementary form, it must be ever so minutely quantized, as claimed by the Space Quantum Theory, the quantum of space being the spacetron.


In order to completely understand the principle of equivalence, we must recognize that the spacetronic field exists in unit quanta having extension, in a state of expansion and contraction, and as the distance measured between material bodies. Material bodies are made of contracted spacetronic strings held in sustained contractions by the impetus force. Further, these supported contracted strings of space quanta form material bodies, units of electromagnetic waves whoes motions rotate through the spacetronic field surrounding them. The expansion pressure through and around such mass bodies, both large and small, we called gravity. It is the spacetronic expansion pressure that binds mass together but it is the impetus force that moves objects toward the eath's surface. The binding pressure diminishes as the square of the distance between bodies, as they recede from one another. Objects in a spaceship in a state of acceleration, away from ponderable mass, feels this same force pressing them to the floor of the ship. SQT agrees with Newton's first law, that every body which is not subject to forces, moves along a straight line at a constant speed unless forced to do otherwise. The frame in which the body moves must be considered an inertial frame; that is, space is discernible by its forces and the dimensions existing between inertial bodies. The dimensionality can only be discernible, if permitted that the means by which it can recognize other inertial bodies, is by transferred energy generated between them. In this respect, since other inertial bodies are discerned by means of an electromagnetic energy, it must be assume that electromagnetic motion is of a constant of nature. This means that its velocity per second,is the same between inertial bodies, and that its measured motion is the same for all inertial frames. Assuming that the electromagnetic wave velocity is C, and is constant for all inertial frames, then, it is capable of being used to determine the distance between objects and particularly celestial objects. Thus, one is able to say, for instance, the sun is eight minutes away from earth since it takes light, which is one of the electromagnetic waves used to see it, needs eight minutes to travel the distance from the sun to the earth. Since light moves independent of its source, and is measured at the same specific rate of speed in vacuo between inertial forces, a person can discern the nature of space itself as being considered an inertial frame vibrating at C^2. This means that space is capable of receiving, transmitting, and giving up such independent energy, the same way mass is capable of receiving, utilizing, and giving up radiant energy. In this same manner, space is capable ofsupporting mass as an independent energy and transporting itthrough the spacetronic field.

Mass moves through the inertial frame of space by means of spacetronic energy, in relationship to other independent inertial mass observers. These other mass observers are being supported by this same spacetronic energy field that the Space Quantum Theory claims is the spacetronic force of expansion. It creates and maintains all mass and energy, in the first place, via the existence of the expanding space quanta. In this respect, one must consider space as a five dimensional lectromagnetic field that exists as a standing wave of quantized expansion pressure and force, existing around and between the masses. It vibrates at the speed of light squared, holding mass together by what can be term a high frequency energy, the impetus force acts below the atomic level of energy and expansion pressure acts above the atomic level of energy. The spacetronic field is also the vehicle of force that transmits all other electromagnetic waves between inertial masses.

About Physical Laws

One must, therefore, recognize that all physical laws must be expressed in forms which are necessarily independent of any coordinate frame of reference, by which physical space is defined. In other words, physical laws are identical for all inertial forces, therefore, all observers will be regarded as equivalent, and will arrive at identical conclusions by employing the same physical laws that concern the growth and developments of their inertial system. The fact that unified gravitational fields exist around all inertial systems, regardless of their size or motions, stems from the fact that the gyroscopic spasons, and, consequently, quarks, which form the hadrons, are supported and sustained by the universal spacetronic expanding field pressure and impetus force. Subsequently, any motion of an inertial system can be considered the motion produced by the impetus field, regardless of its size or shape. For instance, in a rocket ship away from ponderable mass, there exists in the space around the mass of the ship a gravitational field, and regardless of the ships motion it can be considered at rest in relationship to its gravitational field. As long as the ship remains unaccelerated, all the things not permanently attached to the ship will have an independent gravitational field, sharing the ships original motion into space. These items can consider themselves at rest in relationship with their own gravitational field. The expansion forces between loose items and the ship can be considered negligible. Take note that Newton's first law is in affect in this situation. Now suppose the ship to be accelerated and consider the rear of the ship to be the floor of a room. Under a condition of constant acceleration things not attached to the ship do not share the ships acceleration, and consequently, remain at rest in their own gravitational field. This is in accordance with Newton's first Law. As a consequence, and because the ship is accelerating, the loose things in the ship appear to fall to the floor, simultaneously. Items fall to the floor of the ship with a force equal to the mass of the falling object times the acceleration of the ship. This is in accordance with Newton's second law. Take note that Newton's third law is in affect due to the rockets rearward thrust relative to the forward motion of the ship. Now suppose a rope hangs from the ceiling of the room and hooked to the end of this rope is a 10 pound weight; the rope becomes taut. The magnitude of the tension on the rope equals the mass, which equals 10 pounds times the acceleration of the ship. Again Newton's second law. F = M A So one understands the situation, suppose there is another 5 pound weight hooked to another rope hanging from the ceiling of the room. There is less tension on this second rope than there is on the first, meaning that the tension on the rope equals 5 pounds times the acceleration of the ship. Consequently, one is aware of the fact that the tension on the rope depends on the quantity of mass that hangs on the hooks at the ends of the ropes. The force creating the tension on the ropes is equal to the weight of the objects hooked to the ends of the ropes, times the acceleration of the ship. F = M A Now, the two weights are unhooked, and held at the same level above the floor before letting them go. As soon as they are released they become independent items, not sharing in the acceleration of the ship. They both appear to drop to the bottom of the room striking the floor, simultaneously. Even though their weights are different, they appear to fall to the floor at the same time. Accually they do not fall rather the accelerating ship moves up to the free floating objects. Nonetheless, one could just as well imagine that the ship is at rest, hovering above the earth, and that the tension on the ropes equals the mass, times the acceleration of the gravitational field. The force of the gravitation holds all molecules together on the earth, which impresses all individual items toward the center of the earth. Of course, one should realize that it is the universal spacetronic expanding field's impetus force that creates the motion, and, therefore, the force of the gravational field of the earth, in the first place. One must conclude that the inertial mass of the objects in the experiment, meaning their resistance to motion is caused by the expanding field's pressure, holding them in place. The tension on the ropes in the space ship is created by the force of the ship's acceleration times the inertia of the mass, this inertia is generated by the expansion pressure, while the ship is in space away from the earth. This same tension on the ropes is created by the gravitational force while the ship hovers above the earth, again the force is generated by the corresponding expansion and impetus force. The identical condition creates a similar effect on earth as in space. The fact that items fall to the floor of the ship, simultaneously, whether or not the ship is accelerated in space or resting on earth tells us that the force of acceleration is the same as the force of gravity, proving the principle of equivilence. The important idea to realize concerning the SQT is that in both cases it is the expansion of the space of the universe that creates the effect on the items in both cases. Restraining them in creating their inertia mass on the ship in space due to the expansion pressure, then creating their weight or heaviness, when the ship accelerates. When the ship is hovering above the earth, the gravitational force is respancible, such force generated by the expansion and impetus force of the spacetronic field. However, when the objects are released in the ship on earth, it is the impetus force generated by the spacetronic expansion that forces the objects to the floor. This force is applied individually to the spasons at the core of the objects,therefore, regarless of their different weights both objects are forced to the floor simaltainiosly.


The SQT requires an adjustment to Mach's Principle, since it is not only the large-scale distribution of mass, per se, that controls the dynamics of the universe and its affect on local physical motions; it is the expansion of the space quanta whose expansion really controls the dynamics of physical phenomena. Regardless, it must be admitted that the wide-scale distribution of mass does play an important roll, however. The contraction of the space quanta which forms the galaxies in the clusters, facilitates in permitting this expansion process to take place; that is, through the quid pro quo relationship between the contraction of the quanta forming galactic nuclei and the expansion of the space quanta that creates the impetus force. One must, therefore, recognize that in a round about way the principle does aid local gravitational affects, not due to any attracting force of galaxies, rather, it aids in the dynamic expansion forces of space itself. This idea is reiterated in order to bring forth the idea that electromagnetic hot spots, quasars, and galaxies that exist vast distances away from earth, are not rushing away due to the expansion of the universe; any more than the Milky Way is moving away from them at those fantastic speeds. People on those galaxies would have to conclude, the Milky Way is moving away from them at those fantastic speeds, also, since they must receive the Milky Way's star light with the same redshift. Once the true cause of the redshift is learned, then, the realization that these units are not rushing away from one another with speeds approaching the speed of light, can be comprehend. If it were true that the far off units are rushing away at a speed almost reaching the speed of light, determined by the redshift reckoning, then, as they look back toward the Milky Way, they too would have every right to say that it is this galaxy that is speeding away from them, since the laws of physics applies to all observers in the same manner. Therefore, one must look for another reason why a person sees a redshift in the light coming from those distant units.

It is the loss of the energy of the universal spacetronic expanding field in the adiabatic process, due to the expansion factor of the field, which spreads out the wavelength over a period of time, giving a redshift to the light coming from those distant celestial units, according to the SQT. The greater the distance away, which is to say the longer that light travels in time, the greater the redshift that occurs in the light wave, since the loss to the field becomes greater as time goes on. The build up of the background noise indicating a temperature of 3 K is the result of this loss of energy to the field, also, supposing that before the beginning of time the fields temperature was 0-degree K. This brings up an interesting point. The universe must exist in an electromagnetic sea that absorbs and reflects energy back into the field, hence, the microwave background noise heard in the radio. What this really means is that infinity acts as a buffer which neutralizes all the various electromagnetic waves not absorbed by any other method that emanates from all the galaxies in the universe, in other words it is the temperature of the universe!


Cosmology is the investigation and study of the universe as a whole. It deals with the discovery and motion of celestial units as gleaned with various optical and radio instruments employed in these investigations. As a person looks out into the universe they should become cognizant of the fact that they are looking back into the past times of the universe, and from all indications mass is an evolving happening in the cosmos in which the features have changed over billions of years. Cosmologists have become aware that the creation must have developed in stages, to have arrive in the present state of being. From all indications, as well as reasonable considerations, the way nature operates, one is persuaded that the universe, as seen today, had a beginning. This is not to say that some other types or kind of universe does not exist or did not exist before this one came into being, nonetheless, from this experiment, if one wants to view the universe that way, it does appear the universe did have a beginning. Cosmologist calculate this beginning to have occurred 20 billion of years ago and has gradually evolved from radiant energy to mass.

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