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It is still debatable as to how the universe came into being. Did God create it in seven days? Did it start with a Big Bang? Has it always existed as is suppose by the Study State Theory? This theory proposes that new galaxies come into being, as mass is generated, somehow, between galaxies, in empty space, that coalesced to form new ones. Then one might ask the question, what existed before the beginning? Man has speculated about the answer to these questions for many years. From the investigations of the cosmos today with sophisticated instruments, many of the observed features of the universe can be resolved by generating models, using Newtonian theory of gravity, assuming that space is Euclidean, and, therefore, infinite in extension. Then again the universe can be constructed in accordance with Riemannian geometry which Einstein used in generating his theory of gravity. It is a model of the cosmos that has non-Euclidean curvature dominated by the gravitational makeup of the galaxies of the universe after the fashion of Mach's principle which along with the principle of equivalence influenced Einstein's ideas when he developed his General Relativity Theory.

The model of the universe called the Steady-State theory is based upon what is termed the perfect cosmological principle. It treats the galaxies as a cosmic gas and assumes no privileged observers. In other words, all observers see the same large-scale process of the evolution of the universe at all times. For this to be the case one must suppose an expanding cosmos, assumed because of the redshift. It requires that mass be created between galaxies which takes the place of those units in the galactic gas that escapes into infinity. This cosmic model was discarded as not in accordance with observation when the microwave background radiation was discovered. This discovery caused astronomers to favor the theory that the universe started off with a Hot Big Bang and has since expanded and cooled down to the 2.7 degree K temperature, indicated by the background noise discovered by radio astronomers.

The Perfect Cosmic Principle became simply the Cosmic Principle which assumes no privileged observers. Observers moving with the galactic gas, see the same large-scale cosmic processes. However, in rejecting the Steady State Theory one can then speculate on cosmic time. How old is the universe? How did it begin, and what were the evolutionary stages it has gone through? It is apparent the cosmic sphere seen is either closed or open. One is confronted with both of these possibilities. Can cosmic time ever actually be measure in any sensible way? Cosmologist have determined the possible age of the earth and have even determined, somewhat, an idea of the age of the galaxy, but what about the cosmos as a whole. In this respect they must rely on the light and electromagnetic waves radiating from the distant electromagnetic hot spots, quasars and galaxies they are able to detect that was created and developed in the pasts eras of the universe.


Scientist know that electromagnetic waves travel with a specific rate of speed from any emitter of radiant energy, hence, it is an indicator of past times from which they can determine how long the light has traveled from any one emitter, providing they can calculated the distance. Cosmologist seem to think that the redshift is caused by the expansion of the universe and that galaxies are rushing away, carried off with the expanding space. Thus, if they can correlate distance using the redshift, then, they should be able to determine the age of the era in which various celestial units existed. Is this the true picture of the cosmos or is there another scenario one may develop that can be more reasonable, since under an expanding universe, as now thought, galaxies are falling away from the Milky Way, and it from them, at fantastic speeds; the furthermost units must move as fast, if not faster than the speed of light that relativity prohibits.

The universal cosmic scale was first developed by Hubble and the scale factor is called Hubble's constant. At that time it was thought the universe of galaxies was static. Hubble then discovered that light coming from distant celestial objects were showing a redshift in their spectrum, To him it indicated objects were moving away, the further away they are, the faster they moved. It involves the idea that the redshift of the light coming from distant galaxies is an indication of a Doppler Shift due to their receding motions. V = H r V equals the velocity of the galaxy, H is Hubble's constant, r is the distance away the celestial unit exists.

If galaxies are speeding away from one another due to the expansion of the cosmos; it is only logical to assume, at one time, they must have been crowded into a very small area, and thus, existed as a very high thermal energy. This gave rise to the idea that the universe began with a Hot Big Bang. Therefore, it is concluded that the primordial nucleosynthesis created nuclei of protons and neutrons, being combined into hydrogen with a helium abundance of about 25% in about 20 min. After 100,000 yrs. galaxies formed; they began to recede from one another as the expansion of the space continued. The discovery of the microwave background radiation was a clinching factor for many cosmologist in embracing the Hot Big Bang theory. Recent detailed calculations of the microwave back-ground radiation, and other factors, ruled out this straightforward picture, therefore, modifications are needed.


The Space Quantum Theory deals with a radical fundamental idea of the makeup of the universe. The most radical change comes from the basic premise that space is not a void, which means empty, destitute, without content, because the theory turns that notion completely around. Although it admits space to be a vacuum, meaning that its construction is radically different than the construction of mass, nevertheless, it maintains that space is an integral part of the energy scale, and in fact, is electrodynamic in nature. Its basic concept states that space is quantized; furthermore, its energy is equal to the speed of light squared and vibrates with the speed of light in all directions. In addition, each unit is capable of more expansion and contraction than its vibratory action indicates. Space is a very dynamic body of energy that generates world mass, neutrons , protons, electrons and the electromagnetic energy. The spacetronic expanding fields generates pressure, the gravitational force, which holds world mass together and the impetus force that moves mass.

The manner in which the expanding field operates is not at all as complicated as one would expect. It seems that some time ago, about 20 billions of years or more, and for what ever reason, one can only guess, the units of space commenced to expand. Now, since space was completely filled with units in a state of random vibration, which units maintain their individual sphere of influence judiciously, in order for this expansion to take place, some space units necessarily had to give way and contract. It was and is a quid pro quo proposition. Those that expanded, which was the majority, was able to occupy more space than they were entitled to occupy by the "law of equilibrium". So as a matter of compensation for giving up space, those contracted units gained the energy from the expended units which used this energy to expand. This is called the spacetronic law of compensation. By the law of least resistance the energy of those contracted units migrated into pockets. It should be understood that spacetrons do not move from place to place. It is the compressional energy that moves through the spacetronic field as Maxwell's four electromagnetic equations profess. These energies congested into pockets; spacetronic motions forming electromagnetic whirlpools These nuclei, in time, further developed and began to radiate energy. Radio astronomers are able to pick up these radiations that have been traveling through the expanse of the spacetronic field for billions of years. Finally, these radiating envelopes of energy developed into the quasars and galaxies seen today in the near and distant expanse.

In regards to the expansion factor, one must come to grips with the idea that these pockets, as well as the quasars and galaxies they developed into, are not speeding away. In other words, it is important to realize the universe is in a state of equilibrium. This condition exists, because as the space units expand, space units contract. The spacetronic field remains in equilibrium with mass. The energy that is created by the expansion of the universal spacetronic field is simply the impetus energy field. This energy develops the spasonic field that gyrates around a central point and radiates energy out from this central point. The development of these spasonic units into mass, forming quarks, then neutrons, and finally proton-electron pairs, was simply the outgrowth of the electromagnetic envelopes that occurred in the beginning. The photons and neutrinos carry back to the spacetronic field those created energies given up in the process of mass consolidation and or energy in the radioactive decay process. Photon and neutrino energy that is not absorb by the system forms the microwave background in the adiabatic process of the universe. See Fig 18.

Of course there is always the possibility that there never was a beginning of the expansion factor, as far as infinite space is concerned. If the expansion and contraction scenario is assumed to be a natural condition of space, as it has always existed, in this eventuality, the universe has always existed. This eliminates the concerned about how the spacetronic field began to expand, or even why it did begin to expand in the first place; it is just the natural way space exists. Mass being a natural outgrowth of the expansion of space. However, the universe from all appearances had a beginning.

The spacetronic field vibrates with an energy of the speed of light squared, (5.6095 x 10^35 eV) or 9 x 10 ^16, and by dividing Planck's constant h, which is 6 x 10 ^-34 into that figure one arrives at the frequency of the space quantum, 1.5 x 10 ^50 (designated i*). Dividing this figure into the speed of light, 3 x 10 ^8, one arrives at the wavelength of the spacetron which is 2 x 10 ^-42, the scale being in meters (designated i^). Maxwell's equations defines the speed of light as being the square root of the two space factors, e m. However, if both sides are squared to eliminate the square root one finds that together the space factors equals the speed of light squared, therefore, one has this conformation that the spacetrons vibrate with the speed of light squared from Maxwell's equations, its elasticity factor. C^2 = em The equations follow this pattern:- Planck's equation,

E = h f; Einstein's equation, E = MC^2; Maxwell's equation, C^2 = em. C^2 in the last equation equals the energy of the spacetronic field. The C ^2 in Einstein's equation is also the field energy. As said above, the spacetronic's field energy divided by Planck's constant equals the space quantum frequency, C^2 = h i*. By substituting Plank's equation and the space quantum equation into Einstein's equation a significant fact reveals itself.

E = M C^2 h f = M h i* h f / h i* = M f / i* = M

The frequency of any real particle divided by the space quantum frequency equals its mass.

The energy of mass in Einstein's equation times the wavelength of the mass equals I. I = Ew

The constants, h C = I. However, the impetus force comes from two directions, one of expansion - designated I~^, the other one of contraction - designated I~* Both are constants.


If a person takes a piece of matter and continually divides it they ultimately will find that it is composed of identical units called molecules. "What are molecules made of?" It seems that the simplest thing to do would be to take a molecule of matter, and further cut it up into little pieces, then look at one of its pieces; however, that is where the problem lies. The molecules are so small it is impossible to see them with the naked eye. A person sees things by reflecting light off the object; but the light wave is so large in comparison to the tiny molecule, it simply raps around it. The molecule is invisible to light. One needs to bounce electrons off the molecule in order to see it; and, this is done with an electron microscope. In doing this it is found that the molecule is not the last bit of divisible matter. What is barely seen is the molecular's individual atoms. There are 92 natural elements that form molecules. The differing elements are composed of the various atoms. However, for anyone to see inside an atom one needs a different instrument than the electron microscope. The equipment needed to see inside an atom is called a particle accelerator. The first accelerators were the natural occurring radioactive substances. Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand-born physicist in 1906, used the alpha particle to bombard thin gold leaf. Behind the gold leaf was a photographic plate. From these experiments he was able to determine that the atom has a very small nucleus of positive energy. Using high powered electron accelerators, it has since been learned that the nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. These units form the nucleus of the atom. Around this nucleus swarm a group of units which are called electrons. Electrons are negative electromagnetic forces that cannot further be decomposed.

This is not true of the neutron or the proton. These units called hadrons can be sent crashing into one another by man made accelerators whereby they brake up to form heavier hadrons. These units immediately decompose into the stable units of neutrons, protons, and electrons. The hadrons are not the last word in the chain of decomposition for they brake down further into units called quarks. Quarks are the current limit of mass that can be resolved, unfortunately, they cannot be detected outside the hedron. By putting electrons and quarks together in various combinations nature has built the infinite variety of forms, substances and even life upon the earth. Quarks have not been detected outside the confines of the hadrons, where they hang together in an electromagnetic bag; even they are suspected of being composed of layers of some type of substance. The SQT proposes that quarks are composed of sting units called spasons. The Space Quantum Theory enters the scenes of the scenario of dimensional mass and tries to see inside of the quark for the further definition of mass. See Fig 10

The following chart gives the run down of the spacetronic frequencies of all the various energy fields, cosmic, mass and electromagnetic. It gives the basic frequencies in cycles per second and the wavelength in meters.



UNIT.................FREQUENCY (cycle/sec)....Wavelength


Spacetron.............1.5-10 ^50..............2-10 ^ -42


Spason string..............10 ^44...............10 ^ -36

10 ^40


Spason Field...............10 ^33...............10 ^ -25


...........................10 ^30...............10 ^ -22

Cosmic rays................10 ^28...............10 ^ -20

Quark......................10 ^27...............10 ^ -19

Proton, Neutron............10 ^24...............10 ^ -16

Nucleus....................10 ^23...............10 ^ -15

Gamma rays.................10 ^22...............10 ^ -14

...........................10 ^20..


Atom-Electron..............10 ^18...............10 ^ -10

X-Ray......................10 ^16...............10 ^ - 8

Molecule...................10 ^15...............10 ^ - 7


Ultra-Violet...............10 ^15...............10 ^ - 7

Visible light..............10 ^14...............10 ^ - 6

Infra-Red..................10 ^12...............10 ^ - 4


Radar......................10 ^10


FM..TV..AM.................10 ^ 8....10 ^ 7....10 ^ 6


Alternating Current........60 Cycle/sec



There are basically two types of energy, transitory radiation, such as the electromagnetic phenomena, for instance, light, radio waves, heat, and the like; then there is potential, or rotatory energy or stationary oscillating energy, such as matter, which is composed of molecules. While matter may seem to be stationary, actually, the molecules of which it is composed, are little wheels of rotational energy vibrating against each other. It seems that nature has put all things together in the form of wheels of rotatory energy. The whole universe is composed of super-galactic clusters that wheel around in what seems like infinite space. The galaxy itself is a huge wheel made up of, from super-giant red stars to tiny dwarf yellow, blue, and white stars. The yellow star, the sun, is the hub of the solar wheel and even the earth can be thought of as the earth-moon wheel.

The vibrating molecules of which the earth is made brake down into smaller wheel like units, atoms, whose electrons can jump from orbit to orbit giving off the electromagnetic radiation seen as light. The atomic nuclei, whose neutrons and protons vibrate and orbit in various configurations, form a type of wheel. The neutron and proton, whose tri-quark composition, whirl around in quivering motions, emulating a wheel, lastly spasons are thought to be gyroscopes. The Space Quantum Theory looks inside the quarks and sees the spason as a wheel composed of strings of contracted vibrating spacetrons, spasonic energy gyrating around in wheeling fashion, even the units of space itself can be thought of as wheels of motion vibrating in every conceivable direction imaginable. The smaller the system of energy the greater is its scale of vibratory action and consequently the greater is its order of electron-volt (ev) which is the unit used to measure the energy of mass. Particle accelerator devices are measured in electron-volts. The scale factor goes up to thousands and even to hundreds of millions of electron-volts. When the strongly interacting particles, such as neutrons and protons, are bombarded with beams of particles, they can be excited into hadrons of short lived detectable resonance states, just as nuclei, atoms, or molecules, are able to be excited to detectable high resonance states of being with the use of lasers. These hadrons are measured in the billions of electron-volts. They are created by smashing streams of protons and antiprotons into one another, which is the same as saying physicist smash beams of quarks and antiquarks into each other using high magnetic accelerators. These colliding units are found at CERN, the European Center for Nuclear Research in Geneva. Mook 197 & 410


........Hadrons...................Electromafnetic Waves ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Baryons..........Mesons...........Leptons............Waves ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Proton...........Pion.............Neutrino...........Cosmic Rays

Neutron..........Kaon.............Electron...........Gamma Rays


Sigma.............................Tau................Photons (light waves)


Omega................................................FM TV AM .................................Davies 424

The above particles with the exception of the proton, neutron, electron and neutrino are all unstable and brake down into those capable of being detected in a "bubble-chamber".

This action of creating short lived hadrons with greater mass than the proton and neutron is good reason for believing in the spasonic makeup of the quark. These hadrons act in every way as the naturally made hadrons with the exception of their mass. Spasons create the mass of quarks, so the colliding spasons of the quarks momentarily assemble into these heavy units. See Fig 22 below

Fig 22

Fig 22 B

Many other known particles belong to a category called "resonances". They live for a considerably shorter time, decaying after a few particle seconds (10^23 seconds), so that they can never travel farther than a few times their size. This means they cannot be seen in the bubble-chamber; their existence can only be inferred indirectly. The particles listed above in the table are the only ones that can be tracked in bubble-chamber pictures. All these particles can be exchanged as virtual particles; and, they all can be created in the collision processes in the four interaction strength categories; gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and finally week interactions.

In the macroscopic world one finds the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions; in the microscopic world physicist find the strong and week interactions. The leptons are involved in the second and fourth type of hadron interactions, the electromagnetic and the week interaction. They are called the week interaction, but they cause strong decaying actions due to the expansion factor of the spacetronic field which possibly eliminates old atoms, and or those atoms that are overweight according to the Space Quantum Theory. The reason the so called week force and electromagnetic force seems able to unit in one theory is, for the simple reason, that they both arise from the same cause, only from different directions. The electromagnetic force is derived from the spacetronic energy impinging upon the atom; and, this is due to space expansion, on the outside directed inwardly. The week force is also derived from this same space expansion, but not from the outside expanding inwardly, rather, from the inside expanding outwardly. Since the atom is composed mostly of an expanded spacetronic field, each atom of every element has its own particular modulating state of equilibrium relative to its internal and the surrounding spacetronic field impinging upon its spasonic fields. Any absorbed energy jumps electrons to a higher energy state of being, consequently, the energy is automatically expelled as quickly as the atom can manage the action which is determined by what caused the excitement in the first place, be it radiant or mechanical energy. The electrons orb of the atom expands and contracts depending on the amount of energy it receives or gives up, thus, maintaining its equilibrium state. In this manner the atom maintains its state of being as it passes through the surrounding spacetronic field. The expelled energy moves independently through the spacetronic field modulating the path it travels according to its energy.


In order to understand radioactivity and what causes atoms to be radioactive, one must first understand why the atom needs neutrons in its nucleus in the first place. If it were not for the neutrons in the nucleus of the atom, the evolution above the hydrogen atom could not exist. The hydrogen atom consists of an electric charge, the positive proton and a negative charge, the electron, that orbits the proton. Like charges repel one another, unlike charges attract each other. Therefore, the hydrogen atom is neutrally charged since it has both charges rendering the unit electrically neutral. Supplying neutrons to the atom is natures way of causing the protons to stick together, since protons electrically repel one another. If a number of protons were somehow forced to form a nucleus it wouldn't be long before they would tear the nucleus apart because protons naturally repel each other since they have like electric charges. By supplying neutrons to the nucleus of the atom, nature furnishes a stronger spacetronic force to the nucleus. The expansion energy needed to hold the neutrons together, automatically gives added strength to the nuclear force. This acts as a neutralizing effect overcoming the electrically charged repulsive force of the protons. Of course, it takes a tremendous force to get the protons and neutrons together in the first place. This force is furnished by the galactic center and in massive stars. In the nucleus of the galactic center spasons are created and assemble into quarks which are assembled into neutrons. The neutrons are then ejected out of the central position and the process repeats itself. Hence neutrons are constantly pouring out of the center of the galaxy. As the neutrons migrate out into the surrounding spacetronic field they begin to expand setting up a proton-electron pair, creating a mixture of proton-electron pairs and neutrons. The proton and electron together form the hydrogen atom. Some neutrons, instead of splitting up, assemble with the proton forming a nucleus of atoms named deuterium. The clouds of atoms that circle the galactic nucleus are subjected to electromagnetic pressures from excited atoms near the galactic center. Due to these pressures, two of the hybrid hydrogen atoms can now be forced together to form the helium atom. However, it has recently been determined that there is a greater number of deuterium atoms associated with the galactic nucleus then was once thought. Eventually these gasses pour out of the center of the galaxy and form huge clouds. The expansion pressures of the expanding spacetronic field is now called gravitational pressures. A nucleus of hydrogen and deuterium atoms, due to this pressure, begin to burn creating other helium. This burning action causes huge quantities of energy to be released that pour out in all directions, light, heat and other electromagnetic waves, and a star is born. After a period of time the burning process continues to use up the hydrogen and the hot helium core builds up. Greater pressures are exerted on the center of the star causing helium to burn, forming higher orders of elements. These higher orders of elements burn and layers of elements build up. The process continues until finally the star explodes, spreading these created elements throughout the galaxy. They in tern assemble into other stars. The sun being one of the stars that created the solar system, and finally the earth.

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