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A person should now grasp the essential difference between Newton's idea of gravity and the idea of gravity developed by Einstein. In Newton's theory, a massive object generates a gravitational field of attractive force around it, that diminishes with the square of the distance from it. With Einstein's theory the situation is considerably more complex and complicated. Since Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory one can understand that any given field contains energy, and according to Einstein, energy is equivalent to mass. Energetic gravitational fields exhibit the effect of mass and generates an additional gravitational field. This is the idea behind the creation of a black hole.

Be that as it may, physicist are concerned with what causes the radioactivity associated with the heavy atoms such as uranium. Newton's theory is that mass straight away attracts mass, his theory is in effect, linear. Einstein's theory is nonlinear, and consequently, his gravitational field creates another gravitational field which creates another field, in other words, it winds up like a tightly wound spring of a clock. In dealing with atoms containing only a few protons and a few neutrons, the gravitational spring does not get all that tightly wound up as they rotate and migrate through the spacetronic field, so they are not radioactive on the whole. With the massive elements they do get wound up, like a group of uranium atoms, and perhaps at the gravitational center of their masses and particularly within the atoms themselves, their bound up condition becomes overly condensed. The inner spacetronic fields become so tightly bound that there is no room for expansion. Remember, all spacetrons expand with time, even those contained in these heavy atoms. From time to time, these tightly wound up spacetronic fields have no room to expand in all directions, as the case may be. As a consequence, they create an outward force that the expanding field cannot contain; the atoms lose their equilibrium and explode releasing alpha, beta, and gamma rays. The atom is said to be radioactive.


The phenomena of nature as depicted by the Space Quantum Theory simply is that space is quantized, and there is a quid pro quo between the space quanta of expanding spacetrons forming space, and the contracting spacetrons forming mass. The exchange of space for energy is the result of the space expansion factor. Space is infinite, therefore, there is no place into which space can expand, so, this very fact, that space in the universe is in a state of expansion, requires that some space units must contract. The expansion factor is the reason for the creation of the electromagnetic envelopes, energy forming pockets, consequently the creation of mass. These compressed spacetronic fields give rise to transitory energy, heat, light. The spacetronic waves form rotary energies which are called mass, following the law of the line of least resistance. Spacetrons are simply stationary standing wave vibrating units that extends infinitely as far as the imagination of mind can see. Time is the ticking off of the universal expansion rate which generates the impetus force that causes the creation of mass to occur in the galaxy. The continuum vibrates with the speed of light squared and in all directions randomly. However, within and around mass, understanding that mass is an organized compressed spacetronic field of motion, the impetus randomness takes a directional orientation, and the direction is toward the center of the mass, moving with the speed of light; this action is called gravity. The vibration, being directed inwardly toward and around mass, may be considered a form of electromagnetic energy that holds mass together. Since all electromagnetic energy is quantized, according to an action quantum discovered by Planck, while measuring the radiant energy emitted in experiments with a black body; it seems logical that if one divides this action quantum "h" into the energy of the field, or in other words "C^2," they will find the frequency "f" associated with the universal spacetronic field quantum. This equation yields a frequency of 1.5 X 10 ^50. If we divide this frequency into the speed of light, 3 X 10 ^8 one finds that the wavelength "w" of the field quantum is 2 X 10 ^-42 meters.

C ^ 2 / h = i* Spacetronic frquency = 1.5 X 10 ^50 cycles/second

C / f = i^ Spacetronic wavelength = 2 X 10 ^-42 meters

C equals the speed of light, h equals Planck's constant, i* equals the frequency, and i^ equeals the wavelength.

These equations indicate that the elasticity of the spacetronic field is C ^2; its force in any one direction is C. For this reason the top speed of an electromagnetic wave which propagates through the spacetronic field is C. Nothing can move faster than the speed of light in the universe, as dictated by the space quanta's vibratory motion and the impetus force that drives mass and energy though the spacetronic field. The size of the spacetronic wavelength is exceedingly small in comparison to the mass and energy units which one is able to measure. Consequently, the universal spacetronic field is a high frequency energy field. (5.6095 x 10^35 eV.) When the radiation of a high frequency falls on an electron it behaves mechanically in some ways as if it were a particle of energy, it's photon strikes the electron moving the electron, which motion sets up a magnetic field around the atom. By the time this high frequency radiation reaches the nucleus of the atom it is a highly condensed spacetronic field of radiation, its photon acts as the strong force that binds the quarks to one another in an equilateral triangle forming protons and neutrons as to the quarks spasonic, up or down, make up. Penetrating further into the quark, the energy, which physicist called 'color', gives rise to the gyroscopic spin of the three spasonic string fields that compose the quarks, the spacetron itself is the photon. This spasonic spin field binds quarks together into systems that forms a balance at the center of the triangle, stabilizing the unit so that it does not tip over or become unstable. See Fig 10

It should be noted that the magnetic field around a moving electric energy in a wire, is the same type of field caused by the high frequency radiation of the spacetronic field impinging on the electrons of the atom. However, in this event it is the electronic force moving through the wire that organizes the high frequency radiation of the spacetronic field, thus, creating the magnetic field around the wire which is called the magnetic flux. The spacetronic field in which the string spasons propagate, of course, is still an expanding spacetronic field. The weakness of the expansion factor of this field gives rise to the radioactivity of the heavy elements such as radium, uranium and thorium. Over the billions of years of existence this field has weakened and has become unsupportable of the larger mass units. It has the property of emitting particles or radiation from an atomic nucleus such as alpha rays, beta rays and gamma radiation. This is what is know as the weak force, giving heavy atoms a half life. It is thought that this field once supported the higher elements physicist are able to create in the high speed accelerators, but since the field has weakened in the Universal Adiabatic Process, it no longer can support them and they decay rather rapidly after being created. The forgoing gives the Space Quantum Theory's interpretation of the gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak forces of the natural phenomena, all of which stems from the expansion of the spacetronic field and its elasticity of vibratory action.


Ernst Mach, the Austrian physicist, was not satisfied with Newton's idea of an absolute space in which the inertial frames could be measured as moving in a straight line at a constant speed when not subjected to forces. Mach said that the existence of inertial frames is bound up with the large-scale distribution of matter within the universe, and its gravitational effect. This is known as Mach's principle. He also claimed that large-scale distribution of mass was homogeneous and isotropic. In Mach's view, matter has inertia only because there is other matter in the universe. When a body rotates, its inertia produces centrifugal forces, but these forces appear only because the body rotates "relative to the fixed stars", as Mach said,." If those fixed stars were suddenly to disappear, centrifugal forces of the rotating body would disappear with them, as well as its inertia".

What Mach seems to be saying, if there was no other mass in existence to present a resistance against a masses outward spinning push, without those other masses in the universe, the centrifugal force would be negligible. In this respect, all mass in the universe presents an opposition to one another through the expansion of the spacetronic field that generates the gravitational potential, which creates the inertia of mass.

From the beginning, radio active centers have played a distinct roll in their relationship with one another by means of their radiation energies. In their adult stage, celestial objects reach out their interactions, throughout the universe at large to the distant stars and galaxies, and exercised a helpful influence upon one another. Even everyday actions, down to the smallest details, are closely integrated with the universe as a whole, to the point, that without the rest of the universe man's world would not exist; if it could, what would be its meaning? It would not be capable of evolving into man's conscious world that now exists, with his potential to enjoy it. While the expansion factor creates energy, the interchange of photons forever keeps the units in a growing condition of action and reaction, in a state of higher evolution. Einstein was powerfully influenced by Mach's ideas when developing his general relativity theory, although he never completely integrate Mach's Principle into his theory because of the principle of equivalence. The gravitational mass and the inertial mass are of the same nature, therefore, matter has an ingrain quality of its own, and this disturbed Einstein in regards to the distribution of mass and its effect on mass. Einstein in his latter years slowly began to realize that space has an existence of its own apart from mass. He conceived the gravitational field, meaning the function Gik of his theory, as being the realness of space. Without this realness, this topology of space, space is nothing but emptiness, a space without field. In this he agrees with Descartes who claimed that space was the extension of mass, there is no such a thing as empty space. Apparently Descartes ideas profoundly influenced his thoughts also. The Space Quantum theory agrees with Mach's Principle, however, it is not mass that is propelling the dynamics of the universe, rather, it is the quanta of space in expansion that generates the impetus force. The force that is responsible for both gravity, and by its restrictive action on objects when under acceleration. Further, in the future, this same impetus force may be radially directed in a space station by slowly rotating the station, thus, creating a centrifugal force which will act on objects exactly as a gravitational field. People walking around the perimeter of the space station will not know the difference between working in the station or working on earth. As a matter of fact, the gravity of the space station may be regulated so that things will be less cumbersome with which to work.


A word about antimatter. Comic rays that are generated in the galactic nucleus come crashing into particles in the atmosphere often create antimatter. Man made accelerators create violent collisions required to probe the interior of atoms, which create new particles that have exactly the same mass as an electron or proton. This particle is the mirror image of the real particle and is called an anti-electron or positron and or antiproton since it has the opposite values of electrical charge and any other charges. It is created in high energy collisions where particles momentarily stop and head off in opposite directs, maintaining the same spin orientation, having a right handedness for a particle and left handedness for an antiparticle. When the antiparticle meets a real particle both are annihilated; there energies radiate off in electromagnetic waves. See fig 23


It is the supposition of cosmologists that when a star has exhausted all the thermonuclear fuel necessary to produce the heat and pressure supporting it against gravity, the star collapses into a black whole. This process seemed to correspond to the Schwarzchild and Roy Kerr solutions of Einstein's equations. Although black holes are speculations of celestial happenings by Penrose, Stephen Hawking and others, none has ever been confirmed as definitely existing and it may be, because Hawking radiation dissipates them. If it were not for this process discovered by Stephen Hawking, called Hawking's radiation, there should be great many black holes in the galaxy. This has to do with antiparticles.

A black hole has an event horizon and an ergosphere. A particle enters the ergosphere, splits into two particles, one going across the horizon against the rotation direction, the other leaving the ergosphere, and reaching infinity with more mass-energy than the initial particle had. The hole's mass and angular momentum are reduced due to this action. The particle going across the horizon produces a drag on the rotation of the black hole which reduces the holes angular momentum as it drops into the hole. See Fig 24

Of course, in may very well be that when a celestial unit reaches the black hole state of being that it explodes in a super-nova. This may be the reason why none or just a few black holes exist, there is a good candidate in Cygnus X-1. It consists of a normal star rotating around another star cosmologist are not able to see, which seems to be sucking in matter from its companion star. Mool 24 - 30

There is a possibility that in the beginning of the universe the expansion of the spacetronic field created the impetus photons; these photons accumulated in pockets. Because the expanding spacetronic field was as strong as it ever possibly could be, the impetus force wound up so tightly bound that they drew in all generated impetus energies in the vicinity into their centers. Not being able to escape these compressed spacetronic energies, a rotating black hole developed. In time these black holes, and it is assumed there were many, became in equilibrium with the expanding spacetronic field; whereby the influx of high forces, high frequency energies began to slit into two photons. The negative photon entering the horizon of the black hole, going across it against the rotation direction, thus, slowing its angular momentum. The positive photon skirting the ergosphere. bounce off the black hole with more energy them it initially had, thus, creating the gamma rays that, even today, are impinging upon the earth as they travel toward infinity. Their is a US Gamma-ray Observatory Satellite that collects gamma rays and it indicates they come from all directions. See Fig 24


One can now think of the whole of the cosmos as being composed of contiguous space units forming a continuous transformation possibility for the path of an electromagnetic wave, such as gamma rays, light ray, or of the rotary energy wave such as the atom. If one supposes himself to be far away from any mass with a gravitational field and simply consider one of these space units in what can now be thought of as a spacetronic field. One can then assign to each unit its three spatial dimensions and the one expansion time dimension that affects the other three, that is, the increase of the volume of the unit as time proceeds, noticing that the unit breathes in a rhythmic frequency.

The unit can now be described as being a four dimensional vibrating unit, in a manifold of contiguous units forming the cosmos. Even without any mathematical knowledge, one can appreciate the reality of the space quantum as simply a four dimensional vibrating unit of space, three dimensions in extension and one dimension in expansion, which expansion is recognized and designate as time. As a matter of fact, the dimensions measured are simply relative to the world, and, in all probability, the exact total extension of the spacetronic unit can be vastly different, for instance, much larger than what one measures as far as the world's space is concerned. As time proceeds, the cosmic expansion time factor creates the mass units in the nucleus of galaxies by the law of compensation; it is a quid pro quo situation, space for energy that creates mass. These energy waves exhibits electromagnetic angular momentum in the spacetronic field, consequently, the galactic positions are relatively stable and positional. The energies they absorb and reflect are transitory energies moving throughout the spacetronic field, which energies are created by the expansion factor of the universe. Actually Einstein's equations predict expansion on the one hand and contraction on the other. Einstein's theory requires three dimensions in space and one in time. The SQT requires three dimensions in space and one dimension in expansion that determines time over long periods, indicated by the redshift. See Fig 25

The fascinating idea about quasars is their internal engine. Physicist and cosmologist are at a lost to know how the tremendous quantities of energy are generated that pour out of quasars each year as new clouds of relativistic electrons are created. They realize there is a huge powerhouse in the center of the quasar's nucleus, but what possible arrangement of energy processes could be conceived to create such a powerhouse. Not only do the quasars possess such powerhouses, but active galaxies also have these powerhouses at the center of their units of star mass. As a matter of fact most galaxies seem to be powered by an active energy source existing in their centers. The problem with the energy sources of galaxies and quasars is totally unlike any other field of investigation by cosmologist. Theorists make observations and devise models. If the models fit they are contented, they have no idea of the power that creates the model or where the power comes from. Cosmologist are at a loss to determine their energy source from observations. What physical law or mechanism can produce high-energy electrons that in turn can produce synchrotron radiation in various wavelengths? It seems that most models regard this energy source as irrelevant to their models since they cannot determine the powerhouse in the radio quasars by observation, but is it really irrelevant? The Space Quantum Theory claims, not only are the arrangements of the energy that creates the powerhouse relevant, but one of the scenarios that makes the theory viable is how that arrangement was created and evolved. The radio quasars seen are at the edge of the universe viewed today. They are the evolving celestial units that eventually created black holes that evolved into quasars and galaxies like the one in which the sun and consequently the earth resides. Close examinations of some of these quasars reveals that, apparently from time to time, they explode which occurs at their very core. These explosions are seen as huge long spikes of light emitting from their centers, stretching out into the space around them. Perhaps the happenings of these explosions are what created the globular clusters of stars, each an independent system consisting of millions of stars bound together by the expansion of the universal spacetronic energy field forming spherical units surrounding the galaxy that astronomers call `the halo'. Each globular cluster is an independent satellite of the Milky Way. They appear to be the remnants of the explosions occurring when our galaxy was a quasar. The theory predicts that the powerhouse at the center of a quasar is generated by the spacetronic forces. First, by the contention that all space is composed of quanta that vibrates at the speed of light squared; secondly, that their natural state of being is to expand creating the impetus force that accumulates in pockets. Perhaps these pockets developed into black holes that power the quasars, giving them the tremendous energies we see.

These radio quasar were the result of the arbitrary contention between the positive and negative forces that created electromagnetic waves, which, even today, one is able to discern with gamma ray detectors, radio-scopes and telescopes. The synchrotron radiation between celestial units which is thought to have facilitated in the creation of mass units had not yet generated enough energy to have mass creating effects between quasar units. After perhaps many central internal positive energy explosions and the re-coalescing of these various cores of energy, eventually, as the synchrotron radiation between celestial units increased and infiltrated the cores of these units, gradually, strings of spasonic units began to appear and consequently quarks which coalesced into hydrogen and helium atoms and finally stars. With the evolution of the string spasonic units caused by the interplay between the positive-negative-magnetic forces, in conjunction with the radiant energy from other celestial units, the gravitational energy came into play and mass was born. Perhaps it was not long until the gyroscopic spasons developed into quarks which assembled into neutrons that evolved into proton-electron pairs forming hydrogen atoms. From probably eight dozen atoms, their evolutionary process created the molecular world structure found upon the earth.

It has not been clearly demonstrated that nature actually evolved the hadrons that physicists are able to create in the new high-energy proton accelerators, but more than likely they were created ages ago and have since disintegrated in the radio activity process as higher orders of mass were created and eventually life. Matter microscopes, the high-energy accelerators, have opened up a whole new world within matter, and it is hopeful that one day the basic world strings will fall out. Fig 10


Radio quasars were the first beginnings of the creation of the world. These celestial units can be detected with radio-scopes. However, after the creation of hydrogen atoms, and a few others that accumulated into clouds that surrounded the black hole, the "Hot Spot Core," the emission of the light spectra began to take place. Emission lines take place when the low-density gas is heated and zapped by high-energy radiations created by the synchrotron radiation producing electrons circling the central quasar core. It was determined by astronomers analyzing these types of spectra that something peculiar was occurring in light from these star-like objects. The spectrum of the continuum of quasars was ranging from radio frequencies, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x rays to gamma rays created by a powerful quasar engine. If quasars only emitted a continuous spectrum, which is what synchrotron radiation produces, it would be impossible to verify the extra-galactic origin of the quasars. Just a rainbow spectrum would be observed, no way could the redshift be established. However, emission lines were observed, but at first they made absolutely no sense at all until an astronomer, Maarten Schmidt in 1963, matched the normal lines of hydrogen and discovered that these same lines were found in the spectra of the light from these quasars; however, they were shifted toward the red end of the spectra. See Davies 186

The further away from earth quasars are found the greater the redshift, giving rise to the idea that as the emission energies of the quasars hot gas travel from the ancient past into present times, their frequencies undergo a redshift. As these energies pass through the vast space between quasars, they come upon cool gasses that are closer in space and time. The result is that all quasar spectrums show absorption lines, gaps in the spectrum that are not as red shifted as their emission lines indicate. It seems that as the quasar spectra passes through a cool gas cloud between them and the earth, a hydrogen atom, for instance, steals a photon from the radiation, and the electron of the atom moves to a higher level. This simple observation may give credence to the idea, the expansion of space causes redshift and not from quasars rushing away from earth. What this means is that the redshift is not caused by the motion of the quasar moving away from us, but rather by the space expanding between the quasar and the galaxy. As the space expands and mass is created in the various "hot spot cores," taking up this expansion space in the process, the electromagnetic waves spreads out as it passes through the various expanded space-time periods with galaxies in them. Thus, space expansion causes the redshift. The closer a galaxy is, having cool hydrogen clouds around them, the less redshift that units light spectra exhibits. These cool hydrogen clouds are nearer to us than the quasar that creates the spectrum. Consequently, the redshift of the absorption lines are lower than the redshift of the quasar's emission lines, in accordance with Hubble's Law. The less distance a celestial unit is, the less of a redshift the absorption lines will show, created by their cool clouds. The quasar spectrum shows a greater emission line redshift, simply because the quasar is further away than the galaxy containing the cool hydrogen clouds. All quasar spectrums have a less redshift absorption line. See Fig below

The less shifted absorption lines are telling that, indeed, the various energies put out by the core of quasars and galaxies do really interact in an exchange of energy between one another that propagates growth and development. This energy exchange has been going on from the inception of the expansion of the universe. The expanding fields create contracting fields which fields create the electromagnetic waves. This has been happening for the past 20 billion years as close as cosmologist can determine. The universe is stable; forces are in equilibrium according to the SQT.

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