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THE UNIVERSAL MOVEMENT OF GALAXIES

In the 1920's it was discovered that the Milky Way is not alone in the universe. In fact, it is one of billions, and because most other galaxies spectra show a redshift, it was immediately thought that the others were speeding away in all directions. A number of cosmologist are having second thoughts about the idea of this recession, because if it were true, some distant quasars are moving away with speeds close to the speed of light. The further celestial units are found the greater the redshift, so, it should not be long until one is able to see units moving beyond the speed of light according to their spectra reckoning. In view of Einstein's relativity theory, which prohibits mass moving beyond the speed of light, this does not make good sense.

Another thing concerning the correlation between distance and redshift is the fact that relatively nearby galaxies do not give the same redshift expected from their indicated distances. Thus, pointing to the idea that their creation was approximately formed in the same time frame as the local galaxy. Therefore, according to the SQT, it is not expected that there would be a great difference in the redshift concerning the distance between the local galaxies. A Dutch mathematician Willem de Sitter found a static solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity. Although the SQT states that the universe is in equilibrium, it does not mean galaxies do not move. As a matter of fact they do move, for instance, local galaxies are determined to be moving with a speed of 600 kilometers per second. This motion was determined in 1977 by investigators for the most part by using the background radiation as a frame work because its temperature is virtually constant across the entire sky. Using balloon-borne instruments it was recorded that in one particular direction the radiation was a few thousandth of a degree hotter than average and in the opposite direction it was cooler by the same amount. This can be determine by the radiation being red shifted in the one direction and blue shifted in the opposite direction, this being caused by the motion of the Milky Way. By the same method it is determined that all of the other galaxies around it are also in motion. Several groups of cosmologist are looking for what is termed "The Great Attractor" that they figure must be the cause of the motion of the local galaxy, as well as others. In fact The Milky Way belongs to the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and the super-cluster is moving at 600 kilometers per second toward the Hydra Centaurus Super-cluster. This super-cluster in turn is also moving toward what they think is "The Great Attractor," at 600 kilometers per second. If there is such an Attractor then the galaxy is being pushed toward that mass because of the expansion of space as it strives to hold that mass together and not by any power of the great mass itself. On the other hand, it may just be that, on a whole, the universe is no different than the solar system with rotating planets or the galaxies with rotating star masses. In other words, the clusters and super-clusters of galaxies, yes, and even the so called Great Attractor can be simply rotating around in a gigantic prodigious circle so enormous that one is only able to view, but a small segment of an ark of this colossal torus. The very fact that no galactic clusters or super-clusters can be found to be at rest or motionless relative to the microwave background might be telling that the vast scale motion of galaxies is circular or perhaps elliptical or donut shaped, as the case may be. This would be more in keeping with nature as a whole and with the Space Quantum Theory in particular, whereby, the quantum exists, not only in the finite, but also in the infinite realm of physical things. See Fig 28

THE GREAT ATTRACTOR

Galaxies are like atoms and clusters and super-clusters are like molecules. They float around in the universal spacetronic field like gaseous molecules that float around in a container here on earth, of which its temperature can be determined. As gas molecules share motion (heat) with one another, likewise, it may be assumed the celestial molecules share celestial motion (heat) with one another, therefore, it is no wonder that the universe is bathed in an almost even three degree Kelvin temperature. It is simply the temperature of the universe as a whole assemble. It is the temperature of the universal spacetronic expanding field that is in equilibrium with the super-clusters of galaxies of the universe. Super-clusters of galaxies move around in the universe affecting one another with their motion just as molecules move around in a container affecting one another with their motion. Radio Astronomers claim the temperature of the universe is 2.7 degrees Kelvin. If this be the case there is no need of a Big Bang with all of its complications to explain the temperature of the universe. Then all of the super-clusters of galaxies seen started with little bangs all over the universe and evolved into what are seen today.

Since the article above was written it has been learned that team's surveying the galactic fields for the past six-year period (1984-1990) have finally discovered a point where galaxies no longer show peculiar motion, and farther out are galaxies with the opposite flow, back in the direction of the Milky Way. In other words cosmologist have reached the heart of the Great Attractor where all peculiar motion has ceased and galaxies are at rest with the expansion rate, and the background microwave field. This does not mean that they have found the center of the universe, but merely the center of a super-supergalactic field of which a number of galactic superclusters belong, including the local cluster. Galaxies on the far side of this center, when the red shift of the distance background radiation was subtracted, the recession velocities of galaxies were slowed producing a so called infall of motion. Based on the power of the Great Attractor astronomers have estimated its mass to be at least thirty times that of the Local Supercluster, the equivalent of 10,000 trillion suns. Even though the Milky Way obscures a large portion of this tremendous collection of galaxies from earth view, it is thought to be a flattened super-supergalactic field some 100 million light-years thick and twice as wide. The local group appears to be rushing sidelong across the expanding fabric of space, perhaps circling this huge conglomerate of galaxies. On the other hand, some astronomers were mapping the galaxies on the other side of the local cluster from the Grate Attractor and found a Great Wall of galaxies, the size only limited by the extent of their survey. Its dimensions are some half-billion light-years long, and about 200 million light-years wide. It is rather skinny, only 15 million light-years thick. This Great Wall of galaxies is known as the Perseus-Pisces-Pegasus Supercluster.

This stupendous configuration of galaxies does not appear to be drawing the local cluster toward it. By mapping the streaming velocities of galaxies over the vast expanse of space, astronomers hope to discover the distribution of galaxies, and consequently matter in the cosmos. One of the peculiar observations that is turning up with all investigators is the vastness of the huge quantities of space devoid of galaxies. Gigantic bubble like voids, some as large as 100 million light-years in diameter. Some groups think these voids gives the picture of the universe as a soap-bubble universe of separated voids. While others think of the universe as a sponge. Still others are trying to find what is termed the "missing mass", to close the universe, in these void spots, dark mass. The Space Quantum Theory sees these voids as a natural condition required of the expansion of the spacetronic field as necessary for the continual creation of mass in the center of all galaxies. As the hydrogen mass pores out of the galactic nucleus more void space develops around the galactic fields causing huge quantities of vacant space. This is a natural condition under the theory, just as the red shift in the light coming from the distant galaxies is a natural condition based on the expansion of the universe as a whole as time marches on. Not from galaxies speeding away, but simply because of the expansion factor.

Fig-27

SEARCH FOR THE FIFTH FORCE

In an article by John Boslough in the National Geographic, May 1989, he wrote about the search for the secrets of Gravity. He relates how Ephraim Fischbach of Purdue University, believes there is a natural force counteracting gravity. Ephraim arrived at this conclusion from experiments performed by Baron Roland von Evotvos, a Hungarian who measured the gravity effect on various materials. These tests showed objects fall at a different rate depending on their atomic makeup, tightly packed nuclei of atoms causes them to fall more slowly than less tightly packed nuclei. In 1986, Fischbach put forth a theory that tightly packed nuclei of protons and neutrons, such as occurs in some atoms gives rise to a repulsive effect of a fifth force. For instance, Fischbach claims that iron, having the most tightly packed nucleus of any element, even though uranium has more protons and neutrons, is nudged upward most vigorously by the fifth force. A proof of the spacetronic force may lie in this fifth force of Ephraim Fischback. The Space Quantum Theory claims that it is the spacetronic force that holds the nucleus together in the fist place. The spacetronic force which culminates in the center of each atom is much stronger in a more tightly packed nucleus, consequently, the lines of spacetronic force on an iron object is greater than, for instance, aluminum whose atomic nuclei are not as tightly packed. The earth has it's center of gravity, similarly, all objects have a center of gravity, also. Therefore, influenced by the gravitational field of the earth, iron will fall slower than aluminum since it is the weakness or strength of the field between the earth's center of gravity and an object's center of gravity, relative to the strength of the spacetronic field between them and that of the field surrounding both objects that determines the strength of the fall. The stronger field of the iron mass may give it a more vigorous nudge upward than aluminum. If it were the other way around between them, there would be a greater attraction. See vacuum chamber Fig below



THE THREE UNIVERSAL THEORIES

Big Bang Theory

The jury is still out on the decision of which theory of the evolution of the universe is the correct view. To date, the jury has not even been presented with the Space Quantum Theory, however, the three theories will be compared in this work, be compared nevertheless. The first real theory about the creation of the universe, besides the biblical account, " Let there be light", came with a Big Bang back in the 1920's from no other than a Belgian cleric, the Abbe Georges Lemaitre. Most astronomers have swung back and forth between The Hot Big Bang Theory and the Steady State Theory presented in 1948 by Fred Hoyle and colleagues that was first presented in Eccles. 1:9, "and there is no new thing under the sun". The Space Quantum Theory, first presented in 1963 in a small booklet, has not been published at this time in order to be considered. It is hoped that this book will be read and the theory presented to the jury at some time in the future. The Abbe proposed the beginning of all galaxies in the universe came from a concentrated single lump , which he called the primeval atom, that later George Gomow called the Ylem or Cosmic Egg. This atom then exploded, flinging all of the galactic material off into space whence they coalesced. This theory Gomow and his co-workers picked up and developed mathematically in a now famous paper written in 1948. In this paper they predicted that radiation from the very hot early stages of the universe should still be around today, but with its temperature reduced to only five degrees Kelvin. The fact that this background radiation was actually discovered by Penzias and Wilson in 1963 became the final proof that the universe began with the Hot Big Bang as far as Cosmologist were concerned. They claimed the universe started off with a homogeneous glob of matter containing all mass substances. This hot dense mass, with a temperature of 10^13 K and a density of 10^14 g/cm^3 for some ungodly reason simply blew apart. The huge explosion sent mass material out in all directions. Boiling together into elements of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium with a smattering of other elements in just a few hours. For the next million years or so, the universe continued expanding, without anything exciting happening. From that very hot temperature in the first few seconds, the temperature eventually dropped to a few thousand degrees. The neutrons and electrons, not having enough energy to overcome the electromagnetic attraction between one another, then, simply joined up to form the various atoms. Due to gravitational effects, denser than average areas appeared and this material coalesced into the galaxies seen today. They predicted that the hot fire ball's temperature should have cooled down to about five degrees Kelvin at the present time. These ideas 25% helium, which is readily determined to be in all galaxies, and a background radiation temperature of about three degrees K are given as proof that the universe started off in a Hot Big Bang. Of course it does not say why the Ylem was so hot or what it was made of to make it so hot. Nor does it explain why the Cosmic Egg parts, on the whole, are so evenly spread out. Then there is the consideration of the microwave background radiation and why the temperature is the same coming from all directions, when it takes that radiation 20 billion years to get here from one direction and the same time to get here from the opposite direction; how is this temperature identical when theory gives no reasonable connection between each opposite point for the temperature to be the same? For this reason big bang theorist had to invent an inflationary period to have occurred before the big bang to account for a causal relationship between the various parts of the universe, so that this background radiation is compatible with the theory. Of course the idea was conceived by the priest Lemaitre from the notion that all galaxies are moving away from one another, as judged by the redshift of the light spectrum coming from distant celestial objects. The indication was that space was expanding and carrying the galaxies along with it for the ride. The galaxies are not expanding nor the space within them it is just the space between them that is expanding. So it was natural to assume that at one time all the galaxies were in one spot at one time and must have exploded to produce the effect seen today. The Big Bang Theory pictures the galaxies moving away from one another as paper spots pasted on a balloon would move away from one another as the balloon was blown up. The further they are away they are, the faster they move, causing the redshift in their light spectrum. It does not explain what space is composed of or why it expands in the first place and many other questions, like, why does space look foamy up close and why do virtual particles pop in and out of the world. See Fig 30

STEADY STATE THEORY

The Steady State Theory, which Fred Hoyle and associates formulated in the 1940's, since there was a discrepancy between the age of the universe and the age of the earth and other celestial objects. The Hubble time limit of the universe was 1.8 billion years old. Yet the oldest rocks on earth are known to be at the least three billion years old. Analyzing the ages of the stars revealed numbers like 10 and 20 billion years. Walter Baade in 1952 recalculated the size of the universe and rescaled it by a factor of two which took care of that condition. These discrepancies were just too much for Hoyle and others so they invented the steady state idea which required the creation of mass in the voids between galaxies. He and his co-workers conceived the idea that it only required a small quantity of mass to be created (about one particle per cubic kilometer per year) that eventually coalesces into galaxies to take the place of those departing, producing the steady state view of the universe. They just assumed that the redshift was noncosmological so this was no concern to them. The expansion was real, it was caused by the pressure of the formation of new galaxies. The universe always looks the same way because new galaxies take the place of old galaxies and there is no discrepancy of age since galaxies can be almost any age. The Steady State Theory was believed to be the correct idea as to the way the universe was being created until its demise occurred with two discoveries. The first was the discovery of the radio-source count. In 1961 Martin Ryle and Peter Scheuer published counts of sources of cosmic radiation radio-frequencies. They thought the bright ones were nearby sources and the faint ones were distant sources. They reported that the density of radio sources increased as one went deeper into space. If the universe was always the same, as the Steady State claimed, then there were too many faint sources than there should have been for this to be the case. This simply means the Steady State Theory is not compatible with the faint radio count data. Another blow to the Steady State Theory was the discovery by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 when they discovered the radiation background temperature predicted by Gomow. Try as they may they could not get rid of the radio noise they heard in their big horn antenna. They later discovered that it must be the background radiation predicted by Gomow in his 1948 paper. There was another discovery in the 1970's pointing to the evolutionary nature of the universe. Maarten Schmidt did major observational work on quasars. He asserted there were a thousand more quasars two billion years ago indicating an evolving universe as evidence against the steady state model. So it was not long till cosmologist began once again to think about the Big Bang scenario. See Fig 31

THE SPACE QUANTUM THEORY

In the previous pages it is hoped that The Space Quantum Theory has been explained with enough clarity for one to understand that space, the vacuum, is not a void, but rather is composed of stationary units which are called spacetrons that vibrate with the speed of light squared. Before the creation of the world they existed in a state of equilibrium, each unit occupying the same quantity of the expanse of the universe as its neighbor. In contrast with the Big Bang Theory the world of time and energy does not start in one place with a tremendous explosion of matter material, but rather, time began with the commencement of the expansion of these spacetronic units. For the same reason that the big bang people cannot explain why the material substance exploded to begin the world neither can the SQT explain why the spacetronic units began to expand to begin the world. Of course, one could suppose that the condition had always existed and that the beginning of the world was simply a new section of infinite space that was exhibiting this expansion effect for the first time; an evolutionary growth of organized mass energy in this infinite space. Therefore, one could conclude it is a natural condition that requires no explanations. It needs no creation, nor can it be destroyed, the universe is just what is seen, space and energy, it needs no excuse for living, it just is what it is. Like what God was to have said to Moses, I AM that I AM.

The world begins with the universal expansion of the spacetronic field, even in the area of the Milky Way. The first event is the accumulation of the energy envelopes, of contracted spacetrons surrounded by a field of expanded spacetrons. The law in force is the Law of Compensation, space for energy and energy for space. Energy is simply the pressure of the unit. The commencement of the spacetronic expansion on the whole along with the adiabatic energy exchange between the field creates the black body background radiation, the temperature of the universe astronomers are able to detect today, that has been traveling in this direction for the past 20 billions of years. The accumulation of energy envelopes are the many very faint radio signals Ryle found in the distant past, along with the few less dense strong radio signals indicating a less distant source. The quasars being the outcropping of these energy sources that eventually evolved into the galaxies seen today. Finally, looking into the universe, one sees the super-clusters of galaxies that forms the universe. A redshift is seen in the spectrum of distant celestial bodies caused by the slow expansion factor of the spacetronic field as the radiant energy passes through different time periods. Galaxies are not speeding away from the earth nor the earth from them, all move through the universe in harmony together. See Fig 32 also Fig 27

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